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Description : Explain with sketch: i) Rotary island ii) Channelizing island

Answer : a) Rotary Island: A traffic island constructed in the center of an intersection to force the movement of traffic in the clockwise direction is called Rotary Island. They are constructed ... shape of channelizing island will very much depend upon the layout and dimensions of the intersection.

Description : Discuss the legislation and law enforcement education in road accident studies.

Answer : Various Legislative Measures have been adopted like 1. Age limit of drivers 2. Penalties of fine on License for careless driving. 3. Enable Police to check the drivers for the drunkenness. ... for children. 4. Posters exhibiting serious results due to carelessness of road users can be useful.

Description : Discuss the method of spot speed studies on a road section

Answer : i) The simplest method of finding spot speed is by using endoscope. ii) The observer is stationed on one side of the road and starts a stopwatch when a vehicle crosses that section iii) An endoscope is ... of vehicles in that group on Y axis. This graph is called Speed distribution curve.

Description : Describe the procedure of traffic volume count on any road intersection. Also write the method of representation of traffic volume count data.

Answer : The procedure of traffic volume count can be done by any of the methods below: a) Manual counting b) Automatic recorders c) Moving car method a) Manual counting: In this method, the ... Volume flow diagrams at intersection iii) Variation charts iv) Traffic flow map v) Traffic trend charts

Description : Explain the method of recording and reporting of an accident.

Answer : There are three steps involved: I) Collection of Accident data II) Accident Report III) Accident Records I) Collection of Accident data: a) General: Date, Time, Persons involved in ... are most useful to compare the Accident pattern before & after the Remedial Measures have been taken.

Description : Describe the points to be considered for road safety.

Answer : Points to be considered for road safety are: 1) The road should be designed to proper standards, built to the correct specifications & maintained adequately. 2) The safe speed at which the ... to about 30%. 8) Channelization Islands Reduces the number of Collision points & hence promotes safety.

Description : Suggest the preventive measures to prevent road accidents.

Answer : Following measure/remedies are suggested to prevent road accidents: - Engineering Aids/Measures 1. By checking and Redesigning the Road geometrics, if necessary (sight distance, width of ... safety should be displayed - This knowledge should also be given to children, schools, parents

Description : Discuss the factors affecting selection of type of roadside trees.

Answer : Factors affecting selection of type of roadside trees are: i) Trees selected should be such that it provides a large and dense crown with beautiful and uniform shape. ii) Trees must be able to ... pattern etc. viii) Trees like Gulmohar, Ashoka can be planted for landscaping on highways.

Description : Write the objectives of road arboriculture.

Answer : The objectives of road arboriculture are: i) To provide attractive landscape on the roadside. ii) To provide shades to the road user. iii) To interrupt the annoying sound waves and fumes from road ... We get fruit bearing trees and timber. viii) To decrease the impact of air pollution and dust.

Description : Describe the factors affecting visibility of road at night time.

Answer : Factors affecting visibility of road at night time are: i)Amount and distribution of light: The distribution should be downwards so that high percentage of light is utilized for illuminating the pavement ... : To perceive an object, the physical and mental condition of driver plays a vital role.

Description : Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of grade separated intersections

Answer : Advantages: i) Grade separated intersections provide maximum facility to the crossing traffic and avoid accident while crossing. ii) They provide increased safety for turning traffic. By introducing ... They may cause undesirable crests and sags in vertical alignment in flat or plain areas. 

Description : Compare the fixed time signals with manually operated signals.

Answer : Fixed time signals Manually operated signals 1. These are pre-time signals which are set to repeat regularly a cycle of red, yellow and green lights. 1. These signals are those in which timings ... routes changes during the day.  4. Initial cost is high.  4. Less expensive.

Description : Write the points to be considered while erecting road signs.

Answer : The points to be considered while erecting road signs are: i) The signs should be placed on the left hand side of the road. ii) Road sign should normally be placed at right angles to the pavement and ... of the sign adjacent to highway, should not be less than 60cm away from the edge of the kerb. 

Description : Explain the uses of various carriage way markings.

Answer : The uses of various carriage way markings are: i) Center line marking: They are provided on two way roads to separate the streams of traffic moving in opposite direction. ii) Traffic ... the form of monument within the carriageway so as to prevent vehicles from colliding with the obstruction.

Description : Describe the necessity of origin and destination study.

Answer : Necessities of origin and destination study are: i) To judge the adequacy of existing routes and to use in planning new network of roads. ii) To plan transportation system and mass transit ... transport. viii) To establish design standards for the roads, bridges and culverts along the route.

Description : Classify the traffic markings.

Answer : Traffic markings are follows: 1. Carriageway marking or pavement marking 2. Kerb marking 3. Object marking 4. Reflector marking or unit marking

Description : List out the factors affecting reaction time of driver. 

Answer : The factors affecting reaction time of driver are: a) Physical and Psychological characteristics of driver b) Type of the problem involved c) Environmental condition d) Temporary factors ( Eg: Motive of trip, Travel speed, Fatigue)

Description : Write the types of signals to be provided on road.

Answer : The types of traffic signals to be provided are: i) Traffic Control Signals: a) Fixed time signal b) Manually operated signal c) Traffic actuated signal ii) Pedestrian signal iii) Special traffic signal

Description : List out the traffic controlling devices.

Answer : The types of traffic controlling devices are as follows: i) Traffic signs or Road signs ii) Traffic markings or Road markings iii) Traffic signals iv) Traffic Islands

Description : Give the purposes of traffic studies.

Answer : i) To collect the data about type and volume of traffic at present and to estimate the same that the road is expected to carry in near future. ii) To determine the existing facilities such as ... traffic survey relating to accidents. vii) To estimate the amount of road taxes that can be levied.