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Description : What is the expression for calculating vertical curve

Description : Draw and explain integrated duration curve used in system operation. 

Answer : Diagram of integrated duration curve used in system operation: Explanation:  Integrated duration curve is obtained from load duration curve. It is drawn in between load on Y-axis in KW/MW and the X- ... a particular time of a day can also be shown on a curve which is called as mass curve. 

Description : Explain with diagram load duration curve.

Answer : It is drawn from load curve. It is graph of load (MW/KW) arranged in descending order of magnitude with respect to time. 

Description : The load duration curve for unity load factor will be of  (1) Rectangular shape (2) Triangular shape (3) L -shape (4) I -shape

Answer : The load duration curve for unity load factor will be of Rectangular shape

Description : In quadrilateral speed-time curve of electric traction system, the accelerations during successive time periods are ______ respectively.  (A) positive, negative and negative (B) positive, zero and negative (C) positive, positive and negative (D) positive, negative and zero

Answer : In quadrilateral speed-time curve of electric traction system, the accelerations during successive time periods are positive, negative and negative respectively. 

Description : In electric traction for a trapezoidal speed-time curve, the time period is (A) free running speed period = constant speed period (B) free running period = coasting period (C) free running period + coasting period = constant speed period (D) average speed period = scheduled speed period

Answer : In electric traction for a trapezoidal speed-time curve, the time period is free running period + coasting period = constant speed period

Description : Trapezoidal speed-time curve is (A) an exact representation of the conditions in Main-line traction service. (B) an exact representation of the conditions in Suburban traction service. (C) ... in Suburban traction service. (D) a close approximation of the conditions in Mainline traction service.

Answer : Trapezoidal speed-time curve is a close approximation of the conditions in Mainline traction service.

Answer : When a bogie negotiates a curve, reduction in adhesion occurs resulting in sliding. Thus sliding is acute when wheel base of axles is more, degree of curvature is more.

Answer : In a load curve the highest point represents peak demand.

Answer : Load curve is useful in deciding the operating schedule of generating units, sizes of generating units, total installed capacity of the plant.

Answer : The area under a load curve gives energy consumed.

Answer : A load curve indicates average kWh (kW) energy consumption during the period.

Description : write short notes on BH curve.

Answer : The B-H curve is the relation between Flux density B in Wb/m2 (on Y Axis) and H in AT/m (on X axis) It is also known as magnetization characteristics. This curve particularly useful ... occurs. At point A' material gets magnetically saturated and the curve becomes flat (parallel to X axis) 

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