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Description : Describe stepwise construction procedure for water bound macadam roads.

Answer : The construction procedure of W.B.M. road is discussed below: 1. Preparation of subgrade : The subgrade is prepared to the required grade and camber. 2. Preparation of the base course : After preparing ... by rolling or tamping. 5. Open to traffic : After drying, the road is opened to traffic.

Description : Enlist different types of traffic island and explain any one in brief with neat sketch.

Answer : The different types of traffic island are as follow: (1) Rotary or central islands. (2) Channelising or refuse islands. (1) Rotary or central islands: A traffic island constructed in ... each site of road intersection. A few typical designs of Channelising islands are illustrated below:

Description : Describe stepwise construction procedure of cement concrete road by continuous bay method.

Answer : Continuous Construction method: In this method of construction, all the bays or slabs (ABCD) of strip are constructed continuously without any break as shown in figure. In this method, construction joints are, ... be diverted on the other half of the road. This method is also very rapid.

Description : Explain the types of hill road curve with neat sketch.

Answer : Types of curves provided on hill road are as follow:  (1) Hair pin bend curve: The curve in a hill road which changes its direction through an angle of 180o or so, down the hill on the ... moving traffic. At such curves, the parapet wall is provided only for safety of fast moving traffic.

Description : List any four causes of Accidents.

Answer : Causes of Road Accidents: The various causes of accidents may be listed as given below: 1) Due to Drivers: Excessive speed and rash driving, carelessness, violation of rules and ... not closed when required, ribbon development, badly located advertisement boards or service stations etc.

Description : Discuss the merits and demerits of bitumen road.

Answer : The merits of bitumen road are as follows: 1) It gives joint less smooth surface. 2) Failure of Bitumen road is gradual. 3) The quick repair of road is possible. 4) Curing time is ... . 3) They develop hydrocarbon pollution to soil. 4) Maintenance cost is more than cement concrete road.

Description : Explain the procedure for flakiness an elongation test on aggregate.

Answer : Procedure for Flakiness Test: 1) The sample of aggregate to be tested is first sieved through a set of sieves and separated into specified size ranges. Now to separate the flaky material, the ... stones is expressed as percentage of the total of the sample taken to obtain the elongation index. 

Description : Define PCU and list four factors affecting passenger car unit.

Answer : Passenger car unit: - In order to convert the different vehicles classes to one class such as passenger car conversion factor, is known as passenger car unit. Factors affecting passenger car unit ... vehicle classes. 5) It depends upon the factors like regulations and control of traffic. 

Description : Explain the procedure for determining softening point of bitumen. 

Answer : Procedure for determining softening point of bitumen:- 1) Sample material is heated to a temperature between 750 C to 1000 C above the approximate point until it is completely fluid and is poured in ... glycerin is used in heating medium and the starting temperature is 350 C instead of 50 C.

Description : State the necessity of providing extra widening on horizontal curves.

Answer : The necessity of providing extra widening on horizontal curves: - 1) When a vehicle travels on horizontal curves, it occupies more width than that it occupies on straight road. This reduces the capacity ... 5) Drivers have psychological fear to drive close to the edge of the pavements on curves.

Description : Define alignment and state the requirement of an ideal road alignment.

Answer : Alignment: - The position occupied by centerline of a road in plan is called alignment. Requirements of an ideal road alignment:- 1) Short: - In between two terminal station the alignment ... - The alignment should pass through regions of natural beauty and scenery to have good natural aspects.

Description : State the classification of highway maintenance.

Answer : Classification of highway maintenance:- 1) Routine repairs 2) Periodic repairs 3) Special repairs 4) Resurfacing 5) Special repairs to monsoon damage 6) Repair to bridge and culverts

Description : State the necessity of Good drainage

Answer : Necessity of good drainage:- 1) Road drainage is necessary to collect surface water in side drains and to keep road surface in dry condition. 2) It is also required to carry sub surface water away ... of sub layers 6) It also results a good durable road with lesser maintenance as well.

Description : Enlist types of Gradients.

Answer : Types of Gradient:- 1) Ruling gradient 2) Limiting gradient 3) Exceptional gradient 4) Average gradient 5) Floating gradient 6) Minimum gradient

Description : Explain the Divisional Island with neat sketch 

Answer : These types of Island are constructed to separate the traffic from opposite directions in a highway having four or more lanes. Thus, by providing such type of island the highway is divided into two ... driving. The kerb should be high enough to prevent vehicles from entering into the islands 

Description : Write the procedure of construction of WBM road with neat sketch showing various components

Answer : Construction Procedure:  a) Preparation of Foundation: The foundation for receiving the layer of WBM may be either the sub-grade or sub-base or base course. The depressions and pot holes on the existing road ... water and rolled. No traffic is allowed till WBM layer sets and dries out. 

Description : State the requirement of good quality material which plays the major role in highway construction

Answer : The materials which plays major role in highway construction are: a) Soil b) Bitumen c) Cement d) Stone e) Concrete f) Sand Requirements: a) Soil: i) It should be clean and coarse. ii ... . vii) It should be strong and durable. It should be clean and free from coatings of clay and silt.

Description : Justify the remedial measures for the following defects in earthen road: i) Formation of dust during dry weather ii) Growth of vegetation inside drains and their silting up

Answer : i) Formation of dust during dry weather: The dust nuisance may be remedied by the following methods: Frequent sprinkling of water Treatment with calcium chloride Use of other dust palliatives Use of ... the drain. Silting up of weeds, plants, bushes etc. causes obstruction in the flow of water.

Description : State any four causes of failure of rigid pavement

Answer : 1) Defective drainage system may lead to failures in rigid pavements such as mud pumping 2) Use of nondurable materials which start deteriorating during weathering cycles. 3) Improper alignment ... foundation itself, which could result in settlement of the supporting layers of the rigid pavement

Description : State any four preventive measures of landslides in hilly roads

Answer : a) By providing proper and effective drainage system to intercept and divert seeping water b) By constructing buttress at toe and providing retaining structures c) By providing slopes and their treatment to ... g) By providing nets. h) Chemical treatment. i) Growth of vegetation on the slopes.

Description : State the difference between alignment of hill roads and alignment of plain roads

Answer : Alignment of hill roads  Alignment of plain roads 1. Sharp curves are to be provided 2. Cost of construction is more 3. Proper care has to be taken for drainage 4. Stability is ... . Comparatively, less cutting and filling takes place 6. Slope/Gradient is less 7. Alignment is easy

Description : Write the procedure of construction of cement concrete pavement showing its components. 

Answer : Construction procedure of Concrete Roads: 1) Preparation of subgrade by proper compaction 2) Provision of sub base to support subgrade 3) Placing of forms i.e. Steel channels 4) Batching and ... method 11) Filling of joints using joint sealers 12) Opening of traffic after cleaning

Description : State any two merits and demerits of WBM road.

Answer : Merits of WBM roads:  1) If in good condition, it can take a composite traffic of about 900 tonnes per lane per day 2) If WBM surfacing is maintained properly, it is found to have good service ... are permeable to rain water and it leads to the softening and yielding of materials 4) Life is less

Description : Define i) Stopping Sight distance ii) Overtaking sight distance

Answer : i) Stopping Sight Distance: SSD may be defined as the length of highway required to bring a vehicle to stop at various design speeds when the eye of the driver is 1200mm above the ... a vehicle intending to overtake the slow vehicle ahead safely against the traffic in the opposite direction. 

Description : Define gradient and state any four types of gradient.

Answer : The rate of rise and fall along the length of road w.r.t. horizontal surface is called as Gradient. OR The longitudinal slope provided along the length of road, is known as Gradient. ... 2) Limiting gradient 3) Exceptional gradient 4) Average gradient 5) Floating gradient 6) Minimum gradient

Description : State any two causes of landslides

Answer : Causes of Landslides: a) Increase in the water content of the soil b) Improper drainage system c) Increase in the weight due to accumulation of snow and external loads due to traffic d) ... h) Due to seepage pressure of percolating ground water i) Due to failure of breast wall

Description : Enlist any four types of traffic islands

Answer : a) Divisional Island. b) Pedestrians Loading Islands c) Channelized Intersections d) Roundabouts or Rotaries

Description : Define traffic volume and traffic density 

Answer : Traffic Volume: It is the number of vehicles moving in a specified direction on a given lane or roadway that pass a given point or cross section during specified unit of time  Traffic Density: It ... occupying a unit length of lane of roadway at a given instant usually expressed as vehicles per km.

Description : State any two requirements of a Ideal road alignment

Answer : a) Crossing: The provision of railway and road crossing should be properly studied. Dangerous road and rail crossing should be avoided. b) Proper drainage: The provision of proper and ... ) The alignment should pass through regions of natural beauty and scenery to have good natural aspects

Description : State any four modes of transportation

Answer : Four modes of transportation are: a) Roadways or Highways b) Railways c) Waterways d) Airways. 

Description : Justify the remedial measures for following defects : (i) Formation of pot holes in case of WBM roads. (ii) Formation of ruts in case of earthen roads. (iii)Bitumen bleeding in case of bituminous roads.

Answer : The cross section of hill road is shown below: (i) Formation of pot holes in case of WBM roads : The pot holes should be patched up by. (1) Cutting the defective area to rectangular shape and ... spreading a layer of dry coarse sand in a thickness varying 5 mm to 10 mm and rolling the surface. 

Description : Explain Rotary Island (Traffic Island) with a neat sketch.

Answer : Rotary Island or Traffic Island: The raised platforms of suitable shapes built on the road intersections are called traffic islands or rotary island. A rotary intersection or traffic rotary is an enlarged ... streams around the rotary and then to diverge out to the desired radiating road.

Description : State the methods of construction of Cement Concrete Road. Explain any one method.

Answer : Methods of construction of C.C. Road: There are the following two methods of construction of Cement Concrete Road - (1) Alternate bay method. (2) Continuous construction method. Explanation: (1) ... a time. Thus, the essential traffic can be diverted on the other half of the road.

Description : State the functions of surface drainage and sub-surface drainage.

Answer : Function of Surface drainage: The function of Surface drainage is to drain the water from the pavement surface and the shoulders during the rains and to divert it to the road-side drains such ... lowering the ground water level well below the subgrade and in controlling the capillary rise of water.

Description : Explain preventive measures that can be taken to avoid landslides in hilly area.

Answer : The preventive measures that can be taken to avoid landslide in hilly area: The land slide can not be prevented due to earthquakes, but land slides due to other causes can be prevented by taking ... improve the stability of hill slopes. This is done by turfing, stone pitching, cement grouting etc.

Description : List causes of Accident. Draw Collision diagram for Head –on-Collision. 

Answer : Causes of Road Accidents: The various causes of accidents may be listed as given below: 1) Due to Drivers: Excessive speed and rash driving, carelessness, violation of rules and regulation ... located advertisement boards or service stations etc. Collision Diagram for Head-on-Collision:

Description : Define Passenger Car Unit. Give factors affecting it.

Answer : Passenger Car Unit (PCU) : Practically, the passenger car is considered as standard vehicle unit to convert the other vehicle classes and this unit is called Passenger Car Unit' or PCU'. ... of traffic such as speed limit, one way traffic, presence of different traffic control devices etc.

Description : State different types of Tar used in construction of Road with its suitability.

Answer : The following are the types of Tar with their suitability. 1) RT1 - It is suitable for painting road pavements under exceptionally cold weather. 2) RT2 - It is suitable for painting road pavements ... is suitable for premixed macadam in base course. 5) RT5 - It is suitable for grouting macadam.

Description : Explain Softening Point Test on Bitumen with neat sketch.

Answer : Softening Point Test: The softening point test is conducted by Ring and Ball method in the laboratory as described below: The test sample of the given bituminous material is put ... values and thus the suitability of the bitumen under test is decided for bituminous pavement construction. 

Description : Explain the construction procedure of Bituminous Road.

Answer : The construction procedure of bituminous road is summarized as under:  1) Preparation of sub-grade - The existing ground is made clean to remove dust and other unwanted particles using ordinary and ... over thin layer of seal coat followed by necessary compaction as per camber and gradient of road.

Description : State and explain functions of Pavement Components.

Answer : 1) Seal coat: - The main functions of providing seal coat are to develop skid resistance of the surface, to make road surface waterproof and to increase the life of the road surface.  2) ... the road pavement. It carries the entire load of the traffic and the pavement which rest on subgrade.

Description : Define gradient. Explain types of gradient.

Answer : Gradient:-It is the rate of rise or fall of ground with respective to horizontal, is known as Gradient OR The longitudinal slope provided along the length of road, is known as Gradient. ... Average Gradient - The average of both maximum and minimum gradient can be considered as average gradient. 

Description : Define Design Speed. Give four factors affecting Design Speed.

Answer : The maximum safe speed of vehicle assumed for geometrical design of a highway is known as Design Speed. Factors affecting design speed:- 1) Class and condition of the road surface 2)Nature, intensity ... the road 4) Sight distance required 5) Topography of the area 6) Importance of highway.

Description : State two causes of Landslides.

Answer : 1) Due to seepage pressure of percolating ground water. 2) Due to increase load of traffic. 3) Undermining caused by erosion. 4) Due to earthquakes. 5) Due to vibration, faults are formed in bedding plans of the strata. Due to failure of a retaining wall or breast wall

Description : State the necessity of providing catch water drain in Hill Roads.

Answer : 1) Catch water drains are provided to collect excessive rainwater in heavy rainfall regions i.e. in case of hill roads. 2) These drains are useful to avoid large water flow reaching to hill ... be excavated natural rock section on hill top side which avoids erosion of soil along hill road.

Description : List various types of curves provided on Hill Roads. 

Answer : Types of curves provided on hill roads: - 1) Hair pin curves 2) Salient curves 3) Re-entrant curves

Description : Define Flakiness Index and Elongation Index.

Answer : Flakiness Index: - The flakiness index is the percentage by weight of particles whose least dimension (thickness) is less than three-fifths (0.6) of their mean dimension.  Elongation Index: ... particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one fifth times (1.8) their mean dimension.

Description : Define Camber and super-Elevation.

Answer : Camber: - The convexity provided to the surface of the carriage way is called as camber. Super-elevation: - The inward transverse inclination provided to the cross section of the carriage way at horizontal curved portion of a road is called as super-elevation.

Description : Define Kerb and Right of way. 

Answer : Kerb: - The boundaries between the pavement and shoulders and footpaths are known as Kerb. Right of way: - The area of the land acquired for construction and development of a road along its alignment is known as right way.

Description : State two characteristics of Road Transport.

Answer : Characteristics of road transport1) Road transport offers complete freedom to road user to transfer the vehicle from one lane to other. 2) It gives quick and easy transportation of men, machineries, ... rural area or villages. 8)It is important access to reach railways, waterways and airways.

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