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what is heat sink ?
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Heat sink transfer the heat from any chip or any electronics equipment to the surrounding (generally it air). Heat sink reduce heat on equipment. It may be use with LED or any equipment which generating heat . Heat reduces efficiency in most of the cases so we use heat sink.

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Description :

use of heat sink.

Answer :

Uses of heat sink: i. It is used to avoid thermal runaway in electronic circuits. ii. Use to transfer heat generated by a mechanical or an electronic device to the surroundings. iii. Use ... the contact surface between heat sink and air. iv. Used to dissipate the amount of heat generated.

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Description :

The unit heat rate characteristic of a thermal power unit shows :  (A) Heat input per kWh of output versus the megawatt output of unit  (B) Heat input per kW of output versus the megawatt output of unit  (C) Heat input per kWh of output versus the megawatt hour output of unit  (D) Heat input per kW of output versus the megawatt hour output of unit

Answer :

The unit heat rate characteristic of a thermal power unit shows : Heat input per kWh of output versus the megawatt output of unit 

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Description :

Describe the different modes of heat transfer.

Answer :

Mode of heat transfer:- 1) Conduction 2) Convection 3) Radiation 1) Conduction- It is the mode of heat transfer from one part of substance to another part of same substance or one ... in the form of electromagnetic waves. Example: The heat energy receives from sun to the earth surface. 

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14 views 1 answer
Description :

Define sensible heat and latent heat 

Answer :

Latent heat: It is defined as the quantity of heat required for phase change of working substance at saturation temperature. OR The amount of heat added at saturation temperature is called latent ... thermometer. OR The amount of heat added up to saturation temperature is called sensible heat.

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15 views 1 answer
Description :

Explain with reason through which side of shell and tube heat exchanges, the following liquids are directed. (i) viscous liquid (ii) high pressure liquid (iii) corrosive liquid

Answer :

Viscous liquid : Viscous liquid is passed through shell side Reason: because of the presence of baffles in the shell induce turbulence and hence increases heat transfer rate. High pressure liquid: High ... To avoid expensive alloy shells (in order to save the cost of expensive material for shell).

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Description :

With neat sketch explain the construction and working of heat exchanger used for handling corrosive liquid.

Answer :

Graphite block heat exchanger:   Graphite heat exchangers are well suited for handling corrosive fluids. Graphite is inert towards most corrosive fluids and has very high thermal conductivity. Graphite being ... vertical faces direct the service fluid through the exchanger in a cross flow.

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Description :

Draw a neat labelled diagram of 1-2 shell and tube heat exchanger. 

Answer :

1-2 shell and tube heat exchanger: 

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Description :

Calculate the rate of heat transfer by radiation from an unlagged steam pipe, 50 mm o.d. at 393K to air at 293K emissivity e = 0.9.

Answer :

Rate of heat transfer by radiation Assume length of pipe = 1 m

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Description :

Name any four types of shell and tube heat exchanger.

Answer :

Four types of shell and tube heat exchanger: 1. Fixed tube heat exchanger 2. Floating head heat exchanger 3. U- tube type heat exchanger 4. Kettle/ Reboiler type heat exchanger

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Description :

Give the unit of overall heat transfer coefficient in SI and MKS.

Answer :

Unit of overall heat transfer coefficient 1. In SI : W/m2K 2. In MKS : kcal/hr m2K

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Description :

Define film heat transfer coefficient.

Answer :

Film heat transfer coefficient: Film heat transfer coefficient h is defined as the quantity of heat transferred in unit time through unit area at a temperature difference of 10 between the surface and surrounding.

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Description :

Define steady state heat transfer.

Answer :

Steady state heat transfer: Heat transfer where temperature remains same with respect to time and the rate of heat transfer does not vary with time.

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Description :

Heat in a conductor is produced on the passage of electric current due to?

Answer :

Heat  in  a   conductor  is  produced   due  to  frictional  collision  of  electrons   flow  as  they  conduct  current.

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Description :

Power transistors with heat sink are fixed by

Answer :

Power transistors with heat sink are fixed by Fastening

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Description :

Define isothermal efficiency of compressor.

Answer :

Isothermal Efficiency of compressor: It is the ratio of isothermal work (or power) required to drive compressor to the actual work required to drive compressor for the same pressure ratio. Mathematically isothermal efficiency is given as the ratio of isothermal power to shaft or brake power. 

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Description :

Draw P-V and T-S diagram for isochoric process.

Answer :

Isochoric Process: 

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Description :

Explain construction and working of two stage reciprocating air compressors.

Answer :

Figure: Two Stage Reciprocating air compressor Construction and Working : It consists of two cylinders (L.P. and H.P.) with water cooled intercooler and air receiver. First of all fresh air is ... (ie second stage) from 3 to 4 is delivered by the compressor at pressure P3 & Temp T4.

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Description :

Describe construction and working of closed cycled gas turbine.

Answer :

Construction: In above figure shows a closed cycle gas turbine which consists of compressor, heating chamber gas turbine which drives the generator, compressor and a cooling chamber.  ... is cooled at constant pressure with the help of circulating air is circulated through compressor.

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Description :

Explain the construction and working of Turbo-prop engine.

Answer :

Turboprop Engine: Construction and working: It consists of diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, nozzle and propeller. Figure shows a turboprop system employed in aircrafts. Here ... energy of the incoming air (equal to aircraft velocity) into pressure energy by diffuser.

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Description :

State necessity of multistaging and Intercooling of air compressor.

Answer :

Necessity of multistaging - For producing high pressure i.e. more than 8 bar, single stage air compressor suffers fallowing drawbacksi) Size of cylinder is too large ii) Rise ... also automatically decreased and volumetric efficiency is also decreases. To avoid this intercooling is necessary.

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Description :

Explain the sources of air leakage in condenser.

Answer :

Sources of air leakage in condenser 1. Air leak through joints and packing. Air leaks into condenser as pressure inside falls below atmospheric pressure. 2. Air also comes in condenser with the steam. ... separated at low pressure in the condenser 4. Air leaks if any bypass seal is broken.

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Description :

Draw P-V and T-S diagram of dual combustion cycle.

Answer :

Dual combustion cycle: 1-2 Isentropic compression of air 2-3 the combustion of fuel at constant volume. 3-4 the combustion of fuel at constant pressure 4-5 Isentropic expansion during which work is done by the system. 5-1 Heat rejection at constant volume.

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Description :

Differentiate between : (i) Reciprocating and rotary air compressor (ii) Centrifugal and axial flow compressor

Answer :

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Description :

Explain two pass down flow surface condenser with a neat sketch.

Answer :

Two pass down flow surface condenser: It consists of horizontal cast iron cylindrical vessel pack with tubes, through which the cooling water flows. The ends of the condenser are cut off by vertical ... convert into water; therefore whole condensate can be the reused in the boiler. 

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(i) Explain construction and working of geothermal power plant. (ii) Explain the construction and working of bomb calorimeter.

Answer :

(i) Geothermal power plant: Construction and Working: geothermal power plant which consists of the following main components: Underground steam storage, steam separator, steam separator, turbine and Generator. Steam is ... . From the above data the calorific value of the fuel can be found. 

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Description :

Explain combustion chemistry of carbon, hydrogen and methane.

Answer :

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Description :

Compare liquid fuels with solid fuels.

Answer :

S.N. Solid fuel Liquid fuel  1 Require more space for storage. Require less space for storage. 2 Lower calorific value Higher calorific value 3 Difficult control ... ash produced 5 deterioration of the oil in storage Non-deterioration of the oil in storage

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Description :

Draw and label the gas turbine power plant

Answer :

OR

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Description :

Explain working of thermal power plant.

Answer :

Working of thermal power plant: In this power plant, coal is used as a fuel for combustion in combustion chamber. After combustion of fuel the heat is generated and this heat is given to the ... by using cooling water and this condensate again used for the boiler with the help of feed pump. 

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Description :

Draw P-V and T-S diagram for brayton cycle.

Answer :

P-V and T-S diagram for brayton cycle.

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Description :

Give classification of air compressor.

Answer :

Give classification of air compressor.

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Description :

Explain the factors affecting volumetric efficiency of reciprocating air compressor.

Answer :

Factors affecting volumetric efficiency of reciprocating air compressor: 1) Clearance Volume 2) Restricted passage and leakage at inlet valves 3) Speed of rotation 4) Piston ring leakages ... wall, it get expanded, which decreases the charge taken in therefore volumetric efficiency decreases.

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Description :

Explain the working of La-mont boiler

Answer :

La-mont boiler: Working: The La-mont boiler consists Boiler shell, combustion chamber, evaporator, economizer, circulating pump, super heater, and steam drum. This is modern high ... drawn through the super heater. The superheated steam so obtained is then supplied to the prime mover.

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Description :

Draw neat and labeled sketch of three pass packages type boiler. 

Answer :

Each set of tubes that hot combustion flue gas travels through before making a turn within the boiler, is considered a "pass." A 3-pass fire tube boiler design consists of three sets of ... design that allows more heat transfer time to deliver the same or higher efficiency rating. 

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Description :

Explain Otto cycle with P-V and T-S diagram.

Answer :

This cycle is so named as it was conceived by Otto'. On this cycle, petrol, gas and many types of oil engines work. It is the standard of comparison for internal combustion engines. Figs. ... 4-1 shows the rejection of heat by air at constant volume till original state (point 1) reaches.

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Description :

Describe the working of Turbojet Engine

Answer :

Turbojet Engine OR Working :Turbo-jet engine consists of diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber turbine and nozzle. At entrance air diffuser causes rise in pressure in entering air ... and thrust of propulsion is produced. The velocity in the nozzle is grater then flight velocity.

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Description :

Explain the phases of formation of steam.

Answer :

Different phases of Formation of steam Consider formation of steam from ice at -200 C i)Solid phase- When the heat is added in ice which is at -20 0C, the temperature of ice increases ... the temperature of steam which is called as superheating and in this region only vapour is present.

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Description :

Represent Isobaric, Isochoric, Isothermal, Adiabatic process on P-V and T-S diagram.

Answer :

Isobaric process Isothermal process Isochoric process Adiabatic process:

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Description :

List properties of Fuels

Answer :

Properties of fuels: 1. It should possess high calorific value. 2. It should have proper ignition temperature. The ignition temperature of the fuel should either be neither too low nor too high. 3. It ... moisture content. 9. It should be cheap. 10. It should be easy to handle and transport. 

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Description :

Give the classification of Fuels.

Answer :

Give the classification of Fuels.

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Description :

Enlist conventional and non-conventional energy sources.

Answer :

Conventional energy source:  1) Coal 2) natural gas 3) oil 4) fire wood. Non-conventional energy sources:  1) Solar power 2) Hydro-electric power 3) Wind power 4) Tidal power 5) Ocean wave power 6) Geothermal power 7) Ocean thermal power 8) Biomass, Bio-fuel etc.

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Description :

Give the classification of gas turbine

Answer :

Answer: Classification of gas turbine:  1. According to the path of the working substance: i) Open cycle gas turbine ii) Close cycle gas turbine iii) Semi-closed cycle gas turbine 2. According ... turbine ii) Reaction turbine 5. According to their usage: i) Constant speed ii) Variable speed

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Description :

List down the uses of compressed air

Answer :

Application of compressed air:  1. Operating tools in factories 2. Operating drills and hammers in road building 3. Starting diesel engines 4. Operating brakes on buses, trucks and trains 5. Spray painting 6. Excavating 7. To clean the large workshops Etc.

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Description :

Define free air delivered of compressor

Answer :

Free Air Delivered (FAD): any two points It is the actual volume of air delivered by the compressor when reduced to NTP. FAD is a flow rate of air derived from measurement at the ... outlet of a compressor, converted back to the actual inlet (free air) conditions before it was compressed.

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Description :

List different types of ideal gas processes

Answer :

Following are the different types of ideal gas processes  1. Isochoric (constant volume process) 2. Isobaric (constant pressure process) 3. Isothermal (constant temperature process) 4. Isentropic (constant entropy process) 5. Polytropic process 

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24 views 1 answer
Description :

Explain the type of multiple effect evaporator feed arrangement used for handling viscous liquid.

Answer :

Backward feed arrangement  If the liquid is very viscous, then we have to adopt backward feed arrangement. In this arrangement, the feed solution and vapour flow is in opposite direction. Fresh feed is ... Not very common as it need pump. At low values of feed temperature higher economy.

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Description :

Explain Wilson plot.

Answer :

Wilson Plot: The Wilson plot method was developed by Wilson in 1915 to evaluate the convection coefficients in shell and tube condensers for the case of a vapour condensing outside by means of ... resistance and the remaining thermal resistances participating in the heat transfer process.

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10 views 1 answer
Description :

Explain Kirchhoff’s Law with its mathematical expression in detail.

Answer :

Kirchoff's law of radiation: Kirchoff's law: It states that at equilibrium temperature, the ratio of total emissive power of any body to absorptivity depends only upon the temperature of the body. ... respectively. At thermal equilibrium, absorption and emission rates are equal, thus,

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12 views 1 answer
Description :

With a neat diagram explain the construction of calendria type evaporator.

Answer :

Calendria type(Short tube) evaporator: Construction: It consists of vertical cylindrical shell incorporating short vertical tube bundle with horizontal tube sheet. Vapour inlet is provided at top ... sheet, while non condensable gas is vented to atmosphere from point near top tube sheet.

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