search
person
Explain defects in timber with neat sketch.

1 Answer

Types of Defects in timber are grouped into the following divisions. The main natural forces responsible for causing defects in timber are abnormal growth and rapture of tissues.

1. Knots: Bases of branches or limbs which are broken or cut off from the tree as shown in the figure.

 image

2. Star Shake: These are radial splits or cracks widest at the circumference and get diminishing towards the center of the tress. These may arise mostly from severe frost and fierce heat of sun.

image

3. Heart Shakes: These are the splits or cracks widest at the center and diminishing towards the outside circumference, this defects usually occurs in over matured tress and is probably caused due to the shrinkage of heart wood

image 

4. Twisted fibers: caused by twisting of young trees by fast blowing wind as shown in figure.

image 

5. Radial Shake: These are similar to star shakes but they are fine, irregular and numerous. They usually occur when tree is exposed to sun for seasoning after being felled down. 

image 

6. Rind galls: Rind means bark and gall indicates abnormal growth and peculiar curved swellings found on the body of a tree.

image  

thumb_up_alt 0 like thumb_down_alt 0 dislike

Related questions

Description : Explain defects in timber with neat labeled sketches

Answer : a) Knots: These are the bases of branches which are broken off from the tree. This occurs because of improper cutting of tree. b) Shakes: These are cracks in the timber which appear due to excessive frost or ... of timber f) Bow: This is bending along the longer side of timber.

Description : Define seasoning of timber. Explain artificial seasoning with sketch.

Answer : Definition of seasoning:  Seasoning is process by which moisture content in freshly cut tree is reduced to a suitable level. Artificial seasoning: 1.Boiling - In this method timber is immersed in ... has been tried in some plywood industries but not in seasoning of timber on mass scale.

Description : Explain with neat sketch patterns provided in the dressing of trap stone.

Answer : Following Patterns are provided in the dressing of stones 1. Hammer Dressing: In this case, stone blocks are roughly made rectangular by means of wallers hammer. The exposed face is roughly shaped by a ... , most of the projections are removed and it gives fine surface to the stone face.   

Description : Define lime and explain manufacturing of lime by continuous kiln with neat sketch.

Answer : Lime: The moisture and carbon dioxide are removed from the limestone by the process of calcination and the product which is remained after removing the moisture and carbon dioxide is termed as lime. The ... with as of fuel. Its thermal efficiency is however higher than of other furnaces.

Description : Draw cross section of timber. Give any four engineering properties of timber.

Answer : Properties of Timber: 1. Appearance: A Freshly cut timber should have shining appearance 2. Colour: The Colour of the timber should be dark. Light colour of timber indicates low strength. ... : Good timber should be free from defects 10. Texture: The texture of timber should be even

Description : Write the situations where Geo-synthetic material products and artificial timber is used.

Answer : Geosynthetic material products are used in following situations1) When there is a possibility of piping i.e. soil movement due to movement of water. To prevent soil movement (piping), while letting ... ) When it is necessary to improve the appearance with the use of artificial timber for flooring.

Description : Draw a neat sketch of cross-section of an exogenous tree and label the parts. 

Answer : Cross-section of an exogenous tree:

Description : Explain four defects in plastering with neat sketch.

Answer : Following are the defects in plastering: 1) Blistering of plastered surface: it is the defect in which small patches of plaster are swelled out from the plastered surface. 2 ... defect in which there is complete dislocation of some portion of plastered surface which forms the patches. 

Description : Draw neat sketches of: (i) Conventional bricks and (ii) Standard bricks showing all the dimensions

Answer : i) Conventional brick.   ii) Standard brick.

Description : Explain various types of clays with their suitability.

Answer : Types of clays are: 1. Refractory clay (Terra cotta clay): This clay is highly disperse and very plastic. This clay contains high percent of alumina. Uses: Used to manufacturing of ... possessing a high degree of tenacity & plasticity. Uses:Manufacturing of glazed pottery, porcelain. 

Description : Explain about Agro waste material. State its importance in construction.

Answer : Waste materials produced from agricultural byproducts such as coconut shells, sugarcane bagasse, straw, rice husk, coconut fibers, coconut and areca nut tree trunks, coconut leaves etc. are known ... floor tiles, brushes, mattresses j) Mixed with cement mortar which increases the impact strength

Description : Enlist the methods of quarrying and explain any one in brief.

Answer : The process of taking out stones from natural rock beds is known as quarrying of Stones. Methods of Quarrying of Stones: -  1.Digging  2.Heating  3.Wedging  4.Blasting  1. Digging ... Large blocks of stones are obtained by using blasting powder but small blocks are obtained by using dynamite.

Description : Explain about geo synthetics materials. Mention application of it

Answer : Geosynthetics are man-made materials used to improve soil condition. Geo means earth or soil and synthetics means man made. Geo grids, geo textiles, geomembranes, geo cells are some of the ... hill sides. h) Reinforced soil- soil walls, bridge abutments, culverts, bridges, soil arches

Description : Explain the method by which waterproofing of existing old slab can be done.

Answer : i) Clean the slab ii) Expose cracks by tools and make them V' shaped. iii) Fill mix of cement mortar iv) Fill brick bats and sand over the slab v) Sprinkle cement slurry and paste of water proofing ... tiles over the layer of cement mortar 1:3 vii) Cure it for 3 days and slab is water proof.

Description : Explain two properties and two uses of sand.

Answer : Properties: a) It is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. b) It is obtained by dredging of river, hence harmful for the ecosystem. Uses of sand: ... ) Manufacture of bricks d) Used in filtration of water e) Used to make casts.

Description : Explain why you need agro and industrial waste as a construction materials. 

Answer : 1. To maintain ecosystem. 2. To reduce / control pollution. 3. To reduce the cost of construction material. 4. To improve the required properties in construction materials like light weight product, ... 5. To solve the problem of industry waste disposal. 6. To conserve the natural resources. 

Description : Explain the manufacturing process of hydraulic lime. 

Answer : 1. Burning of impure limestone / kankar containing clay containing less than 30 %. With coal or charcoal as fuel. 2. If soft limestone is used, it is powdered, mixed with clay in right proportion & ... long as it is protected from air & moisture. After slaking it should be used within a week. 

Description : Explain the process of distempering

Answer : Process of Distempering: The application of distemper is carried out in the following way 1. Surface Preparation: The surface to receive the distemper is thoroughly rubbed and cleaned. New plastered ... plastered walls, distempers should be applied in two or three coats over coat of primer.  

Description : Explain various types of tiles based on their use 

Answer : 1. Natural tile: These types of tiles are produced from natural materials that are quarried, finished and cut to size. Common types of stones used as flooring tiles include granite, marble, ... acquire the desire print or colour after manufacturing. They are famous inthe name of galicha tiles. 

Description : Define lime mortar. Explain its Properties.

Answer : Lime Mortar:-Lime Mortar is a paste prepared by adding required quantity of water to a mixture of lime and fine aggregate like sand. Properties of Lime Mortar : 1)It should be capable of ... not develop cracks and they should be able  To maintain their appearance for a sufficiently long period.

Description : Explain various types of Cement and also state the uses.

Answer : Following are the various types of cement: 1.Ordinary Portland Cement:-  This Cement is the basic Portland cement and is used in general for most of the construction work. this cement is used at situations ... agent to the ordinary cement. Uses: It is used for making pre cast products.

Description : Explain the manufacturing of burnt clay brick.

Answer : Manufacturing of Burnt Clay Brick consists of a) Preparation of clay. B) Moulding c) Drying d) Burning. a) Preparation of Clay: Unsoiling of clay consists of removal or vegetations and ... the bricks are stacked without any fuel and burnt from fire places and produces better quality of bricks.

Description : Explain the criteria for selection of construction materials for different civil engineering Structures on basis of their strength and durability

Answer : The material must be selected for their ability to support the loads imposed by the building over the whole life of the building. An appropriate structural system and correct selection of ... of the building. The construction material should have sufficient strength to carry the prescribed load.

Description : State any two types of glass along with its uses.

Answer : Following are the types of Glass and its uses 1) Silica Galss : It is used for fibrous glass, rod, tubing, optical windows, laboratory ware and ultra violet transmitting filters. 2 ... Glass : It is used for industrial piping, cooking utensils and high temperature thermometers, laboratory ware

Description : Explain timbering and strutting in excavation with neat sketch.

Answer : A method of giving the temporary support to the side of deep trench or when subsoil is loose or very soft is known as timbering (i.e. shoring) and strutting. It consists of timber planks and strut to give ... sheeting 3. Vertical sheeting 4. Runner system  5. Sheet Piling 

Description : Enlist different types of traffic island and explain any one in brief with neat sketch.

Answer : The different types of traffic island are as follow: (1) Rotary or central islands. (2) Channelising or refuse islands. (1) Rotary or central islands: A traffic island constructed in ... each site of road intersection. A few typical designs of Channelising islands are illustrated below:

Description : List four types of combustion chambers used in S.I. engine. Explain any one in detail with neat sketch.

Answer : Combustion chambers used in S.I. engine:- 1) T - Head 2) I - Head. 3) F - Head. 4) L - Head 5) Divided combustion chamber. 1. T Head Type Combustion chambers.  This ... and therefore more heat loss. 4. Valve size restricted. 6. Thermal failure in cylinder block also. 

Description : Explain with neat sketch Phreatic line in earthen dam with pressure head at different point and show construction points of this line. 

Answer : Procedure for locating the Phreatic line i) Draw an earthen dam having upstream face AB with water surface. ii) On water surface measure distance BC = 0.3 L C is starting pt of base parabola. Let F' ... parabola i.e. Phreatic line. viii) Here G,Q1,Q2,Q3,Q4 and B represent Phreatic line 

Description : Explain with neat sketch construction of PIN Diode. Draw its characteristics in reverse bias mode. 

Answer : Construction A PIN diode is made up of three semiconductor materials; two heavily doped P- and N- type material separated by an intrinsic (undoped) semiconductor (I) as shown in above figure ... . This advantage allows the PIN diode to process even weak signals.  Characteristics

Description : Name different types of material handling equipments used in industry. Explain any one with neat sketch.

Answer : Types of material handling devices 1.Trucks : i) Power lift : a. Fork lift b. elevating platform ii) Hand Lift. iii) Porters trolley. 2.Tractors and trailers 3. Hoist and cranes: ... bands can also be used. 5. Speed of belt normally ranges from 1 m/s to 70 m/s.

Description : Explain with neat sketch any two material handling devices used in mass production.

Answer : 1.Roller conveyors may be gravity aided or powered and are employed for transporting products having flat bottoms. Bigger jobs can be handled as they are, whereas small items are put in boxes, tins ... and unloading of the products.   4.Screw Conveyor, Pneumatic Conveyor, Elevated Conveyor . 

Description : Define plant layout. Explain in detail 'Process layout' with neat sketch.

Answer : Definition of Plant layout It is defined as the systematic arranging of various facilities like equipments, machines manpower, and inspection areas, etc and services within the area  of plant ... required for product manufacturing Less cost of investment General purpose machines are used

Description : Name the types of dies used in press work. Explain any one with neat sketch.

Answer : The various types dies used in press work are: 1. Types of dies according to operations performed (i) Shearing (ii) Bending (iii) Drawing (iv) Squeezing 2. Types of ... giving output. These dies are simple in construction and can manufacture by conventional machining processes.     

Description : Enlist any four operations carried out in forging process and explain fullering with neat sketch.

Answer : Operations carried out in forging process:  a) Upsetting b) Drawing Down c) Setting down d) Welding e) Bending f) Cutting g) Punching Fullering: In ... sledge hammer. The force is applied on the top fuller which results in decreasing the cross section at that point.

Description : Explain the importance of pressure pads in a die with neat sketch.

Answer : Importance of Pressure pad:  It is used for drawing operation for maintaining flat surface of the cup. A pressure pad presses against the material during L bending or U bending, and is used for ... . There is also the purpose of stripping off the material from the punch after forming.

Description : Explain with neat sketch method of welding used in manufacturing sheet metal roofs and doors of automobiles. 

Answer : Method of Welding Used in Manufacturing Sheet Metal Roofs and doors of automobiles: MIG Welding: Gas-metal-arc welding is a gas shielded metal arc welding process which uses the high ... mixtures) which will not combine with metal. Carbon dioxide is most commonly used as it inexpensive.

Description : Define stub. Explain single and double stub in brief with neat sketch.

Answer : Stub:- Stub is the piece of short circuited transmission line which is used to tune out the reactance of the load when connected across the transmission line as close as possible ... but lengths are independently adjustable. The double stub matching provides wide range of impedance matching. 

Description : Explain in detail principle, construction and working of Radiation Pyrometer with neat sketch.

Answer : Radiation pyrometer Principle: According to Stefan Boltzmann's law, the intensity of radiant energy emitted by a hot target varies as the fourth power of its absolute temperature. ... is calibrated in terms of target temperature by using either a voltmeter or Wheatstone bridge circuit.

Description : (i) Explain zeroth law of thermodynamic with neat sketch. (ii) Write the procedure for Energy saving in household appliances. 

Answer : i) Zeroth law of thermodynamics - If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other ii) Procedure for Energy ... Install energy efficient open glass windows to use sun light. Upgrade your HVAC system.

Description : Explain with neat sketch variation of pressure in horizontal and vertical direction in static liquid.

Answer : a) Pressure diagram for horizontal surface b)Pressure diagram for vertical surface

Description : State the role of civil engineer in the field of Environmental Engineering.

Answer : The civil engineer plays an important role in Environmental Engineering in the following ways: 1. Sensible use of water, land, and air so that the environmental pollution and degradation is ... , designing, construction of water and waste water treatment plants, and disposal of solid waste.

Description : State the role of civil engineering in human life

Answer : The Civil Engineering plays an important role in human life in the following ways: 1. Designing and construction of infrastructure 2. Includes roads, bridges, dams, canals, buildings, water supply ... 4. Water supply for drinking, agriculture, waste disposal etc. is also done by civil engineers.

Description : Give properties and uses of ceramic materials in construction.

Answer : Properties: 1. It is hard. 2. It is bristle. 3. It is in the form of amorphous (non-crystalline) 4. The structure is glassy. 5. It is insulator thermally & electrically. 6. It is ... porcelain. 6. For making POP. 7. For making electric. 8. For Manufacturing of sanitary wares, pavers. 

Description : What are the various operations involved in manufacturing of burnt clay bricks? 

Answer : Manufacturing of Burnt Clay Brick consists of a) Preparation of clay. b) Moulding c) Drying d) Burning.

Description : State the materials required for irrigation structures in general. 

Answer : 1) Cement 2) Aggregate 3) Sand 4) Soil 5) Brick 6) Fly Ash 7) Tiles 8) Stones 9) Steel 10) Bitumen etc. 

Description : Describe in brief termite proofing.

Answer : Termite proofing:  In building construction, wooden materials are used for doors, window frames, furniture, electric boxes etc. These have tendency to be attacked by termites or white ants and ... the holes are made around the building and then termite proof chemicals are put into those holes.

Description : Describe the scope of construction material in environmental engineering. 

Answer : The goal of environmental engineering is to ensure the community development and the sensible use of water, land and air resources to make them sustainable. This goal is achieved by managing ... , artificial sand , waterproofing and damp proofing material of required quality and quantity is used.

Description : Suggest the type of cement used for the following : (i) For modular construction where form work needs to be removed early for re-use. . (ii) Mass concreting such as construction of dam. (iii) Decorative works in external surfaces of building. (iv) Cementing the oil well.

Answer : i) For modular construction where form work needs to be removed early for reuse. – Rapid Hardening Cement ii) Mass concreting such as construction of dam. – Low heat cement. iii) Decorative works in external surfaces of building – Coloured cement. iv) Cementing the oil well. – Oil Well Cement. 

Description : Describe four steps in operation of stone blasting.

Answer : The stone blasting process is carried out by adopting following operations.  1) Drilling holes in the stones: Holes are drilled upto the required depth of the line of least ... blasting, disintegrated blocks of stones are collected and transported to the required site under construction. 

Description : State the role of civil engineer in the field of transportation engineering.

Answer : Role of civil engineer in the field of transportation engineering. 1. To maintain safety, adequacy and economy in the means of transport for the need of society. 2. Civil engineer work ... . Remote areas and rural areas become accessible and communicable if connected by proper means of transport.

← Prev Question Next Question →
editChoose topic
...