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The switch board instruments should be mounted in vertical position.

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What is the use of Arduino board?

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Permanent magnet moving coil instruments are used for

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PMME are mostly used for measuring voltage and current.

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Commonly used instruments in power system measurement are induction.

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Operating torques in analogue instruments are deflecting, control and damping.

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The power factor of a single phase load can be calculated if the instruments available are three ammeters or three voltmeters.

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In the majority of instruments, damping is provided by eddy currents.

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According to application, instruments are classified as switch board, portable.

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The use of absolute instruments is merely confined within laboratories as standardizing instruments.

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How instruments are classified?

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What do you mean by secondary instruments?

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The instruments which will give the direct readings are called secondary instruments

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What is electrical instruments?

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Draw & explain touch plate switch using IC555.

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It is construct form monostable multivibrator , when metal plates touch by finger then voltage at pin number 2 goes to below 1/3 Vcc then output of lower comparator becomes high hence flip flop set and ... then output of timer goes low and it low till up to the metal plates touch by finger .

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Give the function of fuse and switch.

Answer :

Functions of fuse:  * To break the circuit under fault condition.  * To provide overcurrent protection to the circuit.  * To provide short circuit protection to the circuit.  * To provide ...  * To make the electric circuit manually.  * To break the electric circuit manually.

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State the function of : i) MCCB ii) ELCB iii) MCB iv) Switch. 

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i) MCB: Provide short circuit protection & over load protection to electrical loads.  ii) ELCB: Provides protection by detecting the unsafe magnitudes leakage currents flowing to earth and disconnecting ... rating.  iv) Switch: Make and break the electrical connection to the load manually.

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Transfer switch

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How rating of main switch and cable is selected for Industrial Installation.

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1. Rating of Main Switch or Fuse Rating is decided in industrial installation: Rating of main switch or fuse is based up the starting current of motor. For calculating starting current is considered 2 ... take 1.5 times the rated current or full load current. & thus cable rating is decided.

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Earthing switch is used for?  (A) Measuring of safety voltage (B) Protection of equipment from ground faults (C) Discharging residual energies (D) All of the above 

Answer :

Earthing switch is used for?  (A) Measuring of safety voltage (B) Protection of equipment from ground faults (C) Discharging residual energies (D) All of the above 

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The device which allows reverse power flow and withstands highest switch frequency is (A) GTO (B) MOSFET (C) IGBT (D) Inverter grade SCR

Answer :

The device which allows reverse power flow and withstands highest switch frequency is MOSFET

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A switch tail ring counter is made by using a single D-FF. The resulting circuit is (A) T-FF (B) D-FF (C) SR-FF (D) JK-FF

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A switch tail ring counter is made by using a single D-FF. The resulting circuit is T-FF

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A closed switch has a resistance of?

Answer :

A closed switch has a resistance of zero.

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If the centrifugal switch of a two-value capacitor motor using two capacitors fails to open then Electrolytic capacitor will, in all probability, suffer break down.

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Centrifugal switch disconnects the auxiliary winding of the motor at about 70 to 80 percent of synchronous speed.

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In a single phase motor the centrifugal switch disconnects auxiliary winding of the motor.

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A centrifugal switch is used to disconnect starting winding when motor has picked up about 50 to 70 per cent of rated speed.

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A thermal protection switch can protect against overload.

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Yes ,it is one of the main advantage using thristors as a  switch in DC  circuit ,it has a high current gain

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Yes, SCR is a unidirectional switch.

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What are the desirable characteristics of ideal switch?

Answer :

Desirable characteristics of the ideal switch: It is desirable to have power switches characteristics closer to ideal switch. The ideal switch should have the following characteristics. Zero resistance when ... . 100% efficiency. Able to control power flow with zero power dissipation.

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What is the difference between a switch and a relay?

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Switch is simply a mechanical contact mechanism and relay is a electromagnetic switch . Switch can be direct mechanically turn on and off but relay can be operated by energising coil .

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BJT act as switch in saturation and  cutoff region ( ON state in saturation region and OFF state in cut-off region )

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Because it has a higher switching frequency and heat tolerance.

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Electrical Measuring Instruments

Answer :

Electrical Measuring Instruments

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Description :

Compare analog and digital instruments .

Answer :

Parameter Analog Instrument Digital Instrument  1 Principle The instrument that displays analog signals is called as on analog instrument.  The instrument that displays ... , etc. Logical analyzer, signature analyzer, computers, microprocessor based instruments, etc. 

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calibration and the need of calibration for measuring instruments.

Answer :

Calibration - It is a process of estimating the value of a quantity by comparing that quantity with a standard quantity.    Need of calibration: - Calibration defines the accuracy and ... aim of calibration is to minimize any measurement uncertainty by ensuring the accuracy of test equipment.

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Advantages of digital instruments

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1. They are having high input impedance, so there is no loading effect 2. They are having higher accuracy 3. An unambiguous reading is obtained 4. The output can be interfaced with external equipment 5. They are available in smaller size . 

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State the effect of dead zone on instruments.

Answer :

It is the largest change in input during which the output remains constant. So during dead zone, even if input changes, output remains the same.

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Define: i) Range ii) Span of instruments

Answer :

i) Range: It is defined as the difference between Greatest and Smallest value of the data or reading of the instrument.  ii) Span: It is defined as the algebraic difference between the upper and lower range values

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Explain the essential toques in analog type measuring instruments.

Answer :

List of torques in analog instruments:  1. Deflecting torque  2. Controlling / Restraining torque.  3. Damping torque.  1. Deflecting torque: To create deflection proportional to ... the speed higher will be the damping torque bringing the pointer to the equilibrium position quickly. 

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State two purposes of calibration of measuring instruments.

Answer :

Purposes of calibration of measuring instruments: - The purpose of calibration is to ensure that readings of an instrument are consistent with other instruments. It is also important in determining the ... will need to be calibrated periodically to make sure it can function properly and safely. 

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Description :

List three types of errors in measuring instruments. Give reasons of occurring for any one of them.

Answer :

Types of errors in measuring instruments:  A) Gross error: These are due to mistakes on the part of person using the instrument.  B) Systematic Error: i) Instrumental Error: These ... multiplying factor.  C) Random error: These persist even after gross and systematic errors are removed.

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83 views 1 answer
Description :

State the meaning of secondary instrument. Classify secondary instruments.

Answer :

Secondary instruments: - Gives reading directly of the quantity being measured. - Calibrated with respect to absolute instruments  Classification of Secondary instruments:  1. Depending on the ... on permissible error: i) Standard meters ii) Substandard meters iii) First grade instruments.

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Description :

Define following terms related to measuring instruments: i) Sensitivity ii) Selectivity.

Answer :

i) Sensitivity: It is the ratio of the change in output signal to the change in input signal of quantity being measured.  ii) Selectivity: It is the term to describe fulfillment of the requirements of measurement by an instrument to be suitable for use in a given situation. 

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97 views 1 answer
Description :

List out any four effects of electric current used in measuring instruments & write name of meter working on it.

Answer :

Effects of Electric Current used in measuring instruments:  1. Magnetic Effect: PMMC and Moving Iron type Ammeters, voltmeter and Dynamometer type wattmeters etc.  2. Electromagnetic induction ... . Electrostatic effect: Voltmeters.  5. Hall Effect: Flux meter, Poynting vector wattmeter.

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Description :

Describe systematic errors in measuring instruments. 

Answer :

Systematic errors: -  ➢ Instrumental Error: These errors are caused due to the mechanical structure of measuring instrument.  a) Inherent shortcomings of instruments: Instrument may read ... or electrostatic fields.  ➢ Observational Error: Parallax errors, incorrect multiplying factor. 

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59 views 1 answer
Description :

Compare primary and secondary instruments.

Answer :

Primary instruments  Secondary instruments  Gives magnitude of quantity in terms of physical constants of instrument  Gives reading directly of the quantity measured.  Need no calibration  ... .  e.g. magnetic meter, induction meter, hotwire meter and electrostatic meter 

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Description :

State the material used for moving coil and former for PMMC instruments. 

Answer :

Material Used for Moving Coil and Former for PMMC Instruments:  Material used for moving coil: Copper  Material used for Former: Aluminium

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133 views 1 answer
Description :

List any four effects employed in measuring instruments.

Answer :

Effects Employed in Measuring Instruments: 1. Magnetic Effect 2. Electromagnetic induction 3. Heating effect 4. Electrostatic effect 5. Hall Effect 

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Description :

Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI)

Answer :

Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI) SCPI stands for Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments it is often pronounced as Skippy. SCPI is a instrument language that control the ... is for storing data in instrument. Display : for presentation.

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Description :

Switch Board Wiring Practical

Answer :

Practical Significance Switch board wiring is very important. Improper connections of neutral and live (phase) wire in a switch board is dangerous and leads to electric shock while maintenance work. ... Connect upper plate to the box with screws. j. Test the board with test lamp.

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46 views 1 answer
Description :

Which of the following instruments can be used for measurement of very high value resistances such as insulation resistance in industries? A) Wheatstone bridge B) Megger C) Ohm-meter D) Resistive potentiometer 

Answer :

Which of the following instruments can be used for measurement of very high value resistances such as insulation resistance in industries? A) Wheatstone bridge B) Megger C) Ohm-meter D) Resistive potentiometer 

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