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The use of absolute instruments is merely confined within laboratories as standardizing instruments.

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The use of absolute instruments is merely confined within laboratories as standardizing instruments.

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The type of instruments used mainly for standardizing instruments in laboratories is (a) Indicating instrument (b) Integrating instrument (c) Absolute instrument (d) Recording instrument  

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Ans:Option C

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According to application, instruments are classified as switch board, portable.

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Permanent magnet moving coil instruments are used for

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PMME are mostly used for measuring voltage and current.

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Commonly used instruments in power system measurement are induction.

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Operating torques in analogue instruments are deflecting, control and damping.

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The power factor of a single phase load can be calculated if the instruments available are three ammeters or three voltmeters.

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The switch board instruments should be mounted in vertical position.

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In the majority of instruments, damping is provided by eddy currents.

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How instruments are classified?

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What do you mean by secondary instruments?

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The instruments which will give the direct readings are called secondary instruments

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What is electrical instruments?

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Electrical Measuring Instruments

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Electrical Measuring Instruments

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Compare analog and digital instruments .

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Parameter Analog Instrument Digital Instrument  1 Principle The instrument that displays analog signals is called as on analog instrument.  The instrument that displays ... , etc. Logical analyzer, signature analyzer, computers, microprocessor based instruments, etc. 

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calibration and the need of calibration for measuring instruments.

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Calibration - It is a process of estimating the value of a quantity by comparing that quantity with a standard quantity.    Need of calibration: - Calibration defines the accuracy and ... aim of calibration is to minimize any measurement uncertainty by ensuring the accuracy of test equipment.

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Advantages of digital instruments

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1. They are having high input impedance, so there is no loading effect 2. They are having higher accuracy 3. An unambiguous reading is obtained 4. The output can be interfaced with external equipment 5. They are available in smaller size . 

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State the effect of dead zone on instruments.

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It is the largest change in input during which the output remains constant. So during dead zone, even if input changes, output remains the same.

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Define: i) Range ii) Span of instruments

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i) Range: It is defined as the difference between Greatest and Smallest value of the data or reading of the instrument.  ii) Span: It is defined as the algebraic difference between the upper and lower range values

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Explain the essential toques in analog type measuring instruments.

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List of torques in analog instruments:  1. Deflecting torque  2. Controlling / Restraining torque.  3. Damping torque.  1. Deflecting torque: To create deflection proportional to ... the speed higher will be the damping torque bringing the pointer to the equilibrium position quickly. 

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State two purposes of calibration of measuring instruments.

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Purposes of calibration of measuring instruments: - The purpose of calibration is to ensure that readings of an instrument are consistent with other instruments. It is also important in determining the ... will need to be calibrated periodically to make sure it can function properly and safely. 

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List three types of errors in measuring instruments. Give reasons of occurring for any one of them.

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Types of errors in measuring instruments:  A) Gross error: These are due to mistakes on the part of person using the instrument.  B) Systematic Error: i) Instrumental Error: These ... multiplying factor.  C) Random error: These persist even after gross and systematic errors are removed.

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State the meaning of secondary instrument. Classify secondary instruments.

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Secondary instruments: - Gives reading directly of the quantity being measured. - Calibrated with respect to absolute instruments  Classification of Secondary instruments:  1. Depending on the ... on permissible error: i) Standard meters ii) Substandard meters iii) First grade instruments.

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Define following terms related to measuring instruments: i) Sensitivity ii) Selectivity.

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i) Sensitivity: It is the ratio of the change in output signal to the change in input signal of quantity being measured.  ii) Selectivity: It is the term to describe fulfillment of the requirements of measurement by an instrument to be suitable for use in a given situation. 

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List out any four effects of electric current used in measuring instruments & write name of meter working on it.

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Effects of Electric Current used in measuring instruments:  1. Magnetic Effect: PMMC and Moving Iron type Ammeters, voltmeter and Dynamometer type wattmeters etc.  2. Electromagnetic induction ... . Electrostatic effect: Voltmeters.  5. Hall Effect: Flux meter, Poynting vector wattmeter.

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Describe systematic errors in measuring instruments. 

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Systematic errors: -  ➢ Instrumental Error: These errors are caused due to the mechanical structure of measuring instrument.  a) Inherent shortcomings of instruments: Instrument may read ... or electrostatic fields.  ➢ Observational Error: Parallax errors, incorrect multiplying factor. 

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Compare primary and secondary instruments.

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Primary instruments  Secondary instruments  Gives magnitude of quantity in terms of physical constants of instrument  Gives reading directly of the quantity measured.  Need no calibration  ... .  e.g. magnetic meter, induction meter, hotwire meter and electrostatic meter 

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State the material used for moving coil and former for PMMC instruments. 

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Material Used for Moving Coil and Former for PMMC Instruments:  Material used for moving coil: Copper  Material used for Former: Aluminium

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List any four effects employed in measuring instruments.

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Effects Employed in Measuring Instruments: 1. Magnetic Effect 2. Electromagnetic induction 3. Heating effect 4. Electrostatic effect 5. Hall Effect 

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Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI)

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Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI) SCPI stands for Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments it is often pronounced as Skippy. SCPI is a instrument language that control the ... is for storing data in instrument. Display : for presentation.

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Light is confined within the core of a simple optical fiber by:  (1) Refraction. (2) Total internal reflection at the outer edge of the cladding. (3) Total internal reflection at the core cladding boundary. (4) Reflection from the fiber's plastic coating.

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Light is confined within the core of a simple optical fiber by: Total internal reflection at the core cladding boundary. 

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Horizontally mounted moving iron instruments use   (a) Eddy current damping (b) Electromagnetic damping (c) Fluid friction damping (d) Air friction damping

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Horizontally mounted moving iron instruments use Air friction damping

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PMMC type instruments normally use Eddy current damping.

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Which of the following instruments can be used for measurement of very high value resistances such as insulation resistance in industries? A) Wheatstone bridge B) Megger C) Ohm-meter D) Resistive potentiometer 

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Which of the following instruments can be used for measurement of very high value resistances such as insulation resistance in industries? A) Wheatstone bridge B) Megger C) Ohm-meter D) Resistive potentiometer 

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Which of the following instruments is equally accurate on ac as well as dc circuits ? (a) PMMC voltmeter (b) Dynamometer wattmeter (c) Moving iron ammeter (d) Induction wattmeter 

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Electrostatic type instruments are primarily used as 

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Voltmeter

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Thermocouple instruments are also known as Rectifier instruments.

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 Highest flux density exists inside which of the following instruments? A) Electrodynamic instruments B) Hot wire instruments C) Moving iron instruments D) Moving coil instruments

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Highest flux density exists inside which of the following instruments? A) Electrodynamic instruments B) Hot wire instruments C) Moving iron instruments D) Moving coil instruments 

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The material of hair spring used in measuring instruments is made of which of material of the following : (a) Copper (b) Bronze (c) Alnico (d) None of these

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Which of the following instruments can be used to measure AC current only? (a) Permanent Magnet Type ammeter(b) Induction type ammeter (c) Moving iron voltmeter(d) Moving iron ammeter

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(b) Induction type ammeter

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Integrating instruments are those which measure the total quantity of electricity delivered in a particular time.

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Air friction damping is used in the instruments which is: Moving iron

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Integrating instruments are those which measure the total quantity of electricity delivered in a particular time.

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Why do teachers use teaching aid? Options: A) To make teaching fun-filled B) To teach within understanding level of students C) For students’ attention D) To make students attentive

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B) To teach within understanding level of students 

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Why do teachers use teaching aid? (A) To make teaching fun-filled (B) To teach within understanding level of students (C) For students’ attention (D) To make students attentive

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(B) To teach within understanding level of students

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Eddy current damping is normally used in the instruments of (a) Induction type (b) Moving iron type (c) Permanent magnet moving coil type (d) Nothing can be said 

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Permanent  magnetic  moving  coil  instrument.

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The force required to move the pointer in an indicating instruments is

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The force required to move the pointer in an indicating instruments is deflecting force

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 Electrostatic instruments are normally used for High voltage measurements.

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Jewels are used in instruments for the purpose of Bearing.

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The thermocouple instruments do not have High degree of measuring accuracy.

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In the case of PMMC rectifier type instruments, the deflecting torque is proportional to Average value of AC current.

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