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Load curve is useful in deciding the operating schedule of generating units, sizes of generating units, total installed capacity of the plant.

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Answer : In a load curve the highest point represents peak demand.

Answer : The area under a load curve gives energy consumed.

Answer : A load curve indicates average kWh (kW) energy consumption during the period.

Description : Explain with diagram load duration curve.

Answer : It is drawn from load curve. It is graph of load (MW/KW) arranged in descending order of magnitude with respect to time. 

Description : The load duration curve for unity load factor will be of  (1) Rectangular shape (2) Triangular shape (3) L -shape (4) I -shape

Answer : The load duration curve for unity load factor will be of Rectangular shape

Description : Describe the concept of leakage flux, useful flux and fringing with neat diagram.

Answer : Leakage Flux

Description : Define useful flux, leakage flux and fringing.

Description : Draw and explain integrated duration curve used in system operation. 

Answer : Diagram of integrated duration curve used in system operation: Explanation:  Integrated duration curve is obtained from load duration curve. It is drawn in between load on Y-axis in KW/MW and the X- ... a particular time of a day can also be shown on a curve which is called as mass curve. 

Description : In quadrilateral speed-time curve of electric traction system, the accelerations during successive time periods are ______ respectively.  (A) positive, negative and negative (B) positive, zero and negative (C) positive, positive and negative (D) positive, negative and zero

Answer : In quadrilateral speed-time curve of electric traction system, the accelerations during successive time periods are positive, negative and negative respectively. 

Description : In electric traction for a trapezoidal speed-time curve, the time period is (A) free running speed period = constant speed period (B) free running period = coasting period (C) free running period + coasting period = constant speed period (D) average speed period = scheduled speed period

Answer : In electric traction for a trapezoidal speed-time curve, the time period is free running period + coasting period = constant speed period

Answer : When a bogie negotiates a curve, reduction in adhesion occurs resulting in sliding. Thus sliding is acute when wheel base of axles is more, degree of curvature is more.

Description : Trapezoidal speed-time curve is (A) an exact representation of the conditions in Main-line traction service. (B) an exact representation of the conditions in Suburban traction service. (C) ... in Suburban traction service. (D) a close approximation of the conditions in Mainline traction service.

Answer : Trapezoidal speed-time curve is a close approximation of the conditions in Mainline traction service.

Description : write short notes on BH curve.

Answer : The B-H curve is the relation between Flux density B in Wb/m2 (on Y Axis) and H in AT/m (on X axis) It is also known as magnetization characteristics. This curve particularly useful ... occurs. At point A' material gets magnetically saturated and the curve becomes flat (parallel to X axis) 

Description : In order to have a lower cost of electrical energy generation the load factor  (1) and the diversity factor should be low (2) should be low but the diversity factor should be high (3) should be high but the diversity factor should be low (4) and the diversity factor both should be high

Answer : In order to have a lower cost of electrical energy generation the load factor and the diversity factor both should be high

Answer : In two part tariff, variation in load factor will affect operating or running charges.

Description : Compare base load plant with peak load plant. 

Answer : Sr.No. Points Base load plant Peak load plant  1 Definition The power plant which supplies base load of load curve is known as base load plant The power ... power station   Small capacity storage hydro, pumped storage hydro, gas, diesel power station. 

Answer : 1. Connected Load: It is the sum of load of all equipment's connected to supply system which are in use or not in use of each consumer. OR   The sum of connected load of all consumers ... is the maximum load which a consumer uses at a particular time period out of his total connected load. 

Answer : Nuclear power plant is invariably used as base load plant.

Answer : Generators for peak load plants are usually designed for maximum efficiency at 50 to 75 percent full load.

Answer : Generating capacity connected to the bus bars and ready to take load when switched on is known as spinning reserve.

Answer : The increased load during summer months is due to increased use of fans and air conditioners.

Answer : Peak load plant can never have 100 percent load factor.

Answer : High load factor indicates total plant capacity is utilised for most of the time.

Answer : The load factor of domestic load is usually 10 to 15%.

Answer : Load factor of a power station is generally less than unity.

Answer : Load factor of a power station is defined as average load/maximum demand.

Description : Define balanced and unbalanced load in three phase circuit.

Answer : Balanced Load: When all the imedances of 3 phases are equal in magnitude and of same nature then load is said to be balanced.  Unbalanced Load: When all the imedances of 3 phases are not equal in magnitude and of different nature then load is said to be unbalanced.

Description : A balanced Delta connected load supplied with 440 V 50 Hz three phase AC supply has R=10 Ohm and L=0.6 mH in is each arm. Calculate line and phase current, active power.

Description : In load flow Study, a PV bus is treated as a PQ bus when

Answer : Voltage at the bus becomes high 

Description : A 3-phase voltage source inverter operates in 180° conduction mode with a star connected resistive load. If input dc voltage is 100 V, then the peak to peak output line voltage is :

Answer : A 3-phase voltage source inverter operates in 180° conduction mode with a star connected resistive load. If input dc voltage is 100 V, then the peak to peak output line voltage is : 200 V

Description : Generally in a power system network, the load is represented as a :  (A) Constant power in both load flow study and in stability study  (B) Constant power in load flow study and constant ... impedance in load flow study  (D) Constant impedance in both load flow study and in stability study

Answer : Generally in a power system network, the load is represented as a : Constant power in load flow study and constant impedance in stability study 

Description : In tuned power lines, on load :  (A) the receiving end voltage is numerically equal to the sending end voltage  (B) the receiving end current is numerically equal to the sending end current  (C) there is no voltage drop  (D) all the above

Answer : In tuned power lines, on load :  (A) the receiving end voltage is numerically equal to the sending end voltage  (B) the receiving end current is numerically equal to the sending end current  (C) there is no voltage drop  (D) all the above

Description : In a synchronous generator if the excitation increased from a low value to normal value, with a fixed load  (A) The armature current increases and the power factor decreases  (B) The armature ... but is lagging  (D) The armature current decreases and the power factor increases and is leading

Answer : In a synchronous generator if the excitation increased from a low value to normal value, with a fixed load The armature current decreases and the power factor increases and is leading

Description : Load compensation in power systems is a process to :  (A) Maintain better voltage profile (B) Increase short circuit capacity of the system (C) Generate required harmonics for loads like arc furnaces (D) Compensate for the line reactance

Answer : Load compensation in power systems is a process to : Maintain better voltage profile

Description : In a synchronous generator delivering lagging power factor load  (1) the excitation emf leads terminal voltage by the power angle (2) the excitation emf lags terminal voltage by the power angle (3) ... by the power factor angle (4) excitation emf lags the terminal voltage by the power factor angle

Answer : In a synchronous generator delivering lagging power factor load the excitation emf leads terminal voltage by the power angle

Description : In a lamp load when more than one lamp are switched on the total resistance of the load?

Answer : In a lamp load when more than one lamp are switched on the total resistance of the load decreases.

Answer : In a level compounded D.C. generator, full load terminal voltage is equal to no-load terminal voltage.

Answer : In over compounded generator, full load terminal voltage is more than no load terminal voltage.

Answer : In D.C. shunt motors as load is reduced the speed will remain almost constant.

Answer : A synchronous motor running with normal excitation adjusts to load increases essentially by increase in armature current.

Answer : In an actual transformer the iron loss remains practically constant from no load to full load because core flux remains practically constant.

Description : In a given transformer for a given applied voltage, losses which remain constant irrespective of load changes are?

Answer : In a given transformer for a given applied voltage, losses which remain constant irrespective of load changes are hysteresis and eddy current losses.

Description : In a step-down transformer, there is a change of 15 A in the load current. This results in change of supply current of?

Answer : In a step-down transformer, there is a change of 15 A in the load current. This results in change of supply current of less than 15A.

Description : In a synchronous motor which losses varies with load?

Answer : In a synchronous motor, copper losses varies with load.

Description : In synchronous motor, does the winding losses vary with load?

Answer : No, in the synchronous motor the winding losses do not vary with load.

Description : Explain MCB and ELCB with connection diagram supplying single phase load. 

Answer : OR OR Explanation: * MCB provides short circuit protection. * MCB provides overload protection * ELCB provides earth fault protection. * MCB is in series with ... occurs, the ELCB cuts off the power within the time of 0.1 sec. automatically to protect the personnel. 

Description : Explain with neat circuit diagrams the procedures to perform no load and blocked rotor tests on three phase induction motor.

Description : Single-phase mid-point controlled rectifier with RL load

Answer : Single-phase mid-point controlled rectifier with RL load : The circuit configuration of single-phase midpoint controlled rectifier is shown in the figure. During positive half-cycle of ... some part of next positive half-cycle of voltage with reversed polarity can appear across load.

Description : Class A Load Commutation

Answer : Class A: Load Commutation: The class A or load commutation (also called self-commutation or resonant commutation) is employed in thyristor circuits supplied from DC source. The commutating components include ... biased. Thus the zero-current and reverse-bias cause the thyristor to turn-off. 

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