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A load curve indicates average kWh (kW) energy consumption during the period.

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Answer : High load factor indicates total plant capacity is utilised for most of the time.

Answer : In a load curve the highest point represents peak demand.

Answer : Load curve is useful in deciding the operating schedule of generating units, sizes of generating units, total installed capacity of the plant.

Answer : The area under a load curve gives energy consumed.

Description : Explain with diagram load duration curve.

Answer : It is drawn from load curve. It is graph of load (MW/KW) arranged in descending order of magnitude with respect to time. 

Description : The load duration curve for unity load factor will be of  (1) Rectangular shape (2) Triangular shape (3) L -shape (4) I -shape

Answer : The load duration curve for unity load factor will be of Rectangular shape

Answer : A low utilization factor for a plant indicates that plant is used for stand by purpose.

Description : Draw and explain integrated duration curve used in system operation. 

Answer : Diagram of integrated duration curve used in system operation: Explanation:  Integrated duration curve is obtained from load duration curve. It is drawn in between load on Y-axis in KW/MW and the X- ... a particular time of a day can also be shown on a curve which is called as mass curve. 

Description : In quadrilateral speed-time curve of electric traction system, the accelerations during successive time periods are ______ respectively.  (A) positive, negative and negative (B) positive, zero and negative (C) positive, positive and negative (D) positive, negative and zero

Answer : In quadrilateral speed-time curve of electric traction system, the accelerations during successive time periods are positive, negative and negative respectively. 

Description : In electric traction for a trapezoidal speed-time curve, the time period is (A) free running speed period = constant speed period (B) free running period = coasting period (C) free running period + coasting period = constant speed period (D) average speed period = scheduled speed period

Answer : In electric traction for a trapezoidal speed-time curve, the time period is free running period + coasting period = constant speed period

Description : Trapezoidal speed-time curve is (A) an exact representation of the conditions in Main-line traction service. (B) an exact representation of the conditions in Suburban traction service. (C) ... in Suburban traction service. (D) a close approximation of the conditions in Mainline traction service.

Answer : Trapezoidal speed-time curve is a close approximation of the conditions in Mainline traction service.

Answer : When a bogie negotiates a curve, reduction in adhesion occurs resulting in sliding. Thus sliding is acute when wheel base of axles is more, degree of curvature is more.

Description : write short notes on BH curve.

Answer : The B-H curve is the relation between Flux density B in Wb/m2 (on Y Axis) and H in AT/m (on X axis) It is also known as magnetization characteristics. This curve particularly useful ... occurs. At point A' material gets magnetically saturated and the curve becomes flat (parallel to X axis) 

Description : Compare base load plant with peak load plant. 

Answer : Sr.No. Points Base load plant Peak load plant  1 Definition The power plant which supplies base load of load curve is known as base load plant The power ... power station   Small capacity storage hydro, pumped storage hydro, gas, diesel power station. 

Answer : 1. Connected Load: It is the sum of load of all equipment's connected to supply system which are in use or not in use of each consumer. OR   The sum of connected load of all consumers ... is the maximum load which a consumer uses at a particular time period out of his total connected load. 

Description : In order to have a lower cost of electrical energy generation the load factor  (1) and the diversity factor should be low (2) should be low but the diversity factor should be high (3) should be high but the diversity factor should be low (4) and the diversity factor both should be high

Answer : In order to have a lower cost of electrical energy generation the load factor and the diversity factor both should be high

Answer : Nuclear power plant is invariably used as base load plant.

Answer : Generators for peak load plants are usually designed for maximum efficiency at 50 to 75 percent full load.

Answer : Generating capacity connected to the bus bars and ready to take load when switched on is known as spinning reserve.

Answer : The increased load during summer months is due to increased use of fans and air conditioners.

Answer : Peak load plant can never have 100 percent load factor.

Answer : In two part tariff, variation in load factor will affect operating or running charges.

Answer : The load factor of domestic load is usually 10 to 15%.

Answer : Load factor of a power station is generally less than unity.

Answer : Load factor of a power station is defined as average load/maximum demand.

Description : Explain MCB and ELCB with connection diagram supplying single phase load. 

Answer : OR OR Explanation: * MCB provides short circuit protection. * MCB provides overload protection * ELCB provides earth fault protection. * MCB is in series with ... occurs, the ELCB cuts off the power within the time of 0.1 sec. automatically to protect the personnel. 

Description : Explain with neat circuit diagrams the procedures to perform no load and blocked rotor tests on three phase induction motor.

Description : Single-phase mid-point controlled rectifier with RL load

Answer : Single-phase mid-point controlled rectifier with RL load : The circuit configuration of single-phase midpoint controlled rectifier is shown in the figure. During positive half-cycle of ... some part of next positive half-cycle of voltage with reversed polarity can appear across load.

Description : Class A Load Commutation

Answer : Class A: Load Commutation: The class A or load commutation (also called self-commutation or resonant commutation) is employed in thyristor circuits supplied from DC source. The commutating components include ... biased. Thus the zero-current and reverse-bias cause the thyristor to turn-off. 

Description : Single-phase Midpoint controlled rectifier with Resistive load

Answer : Single-phase Midpoint controlled rectifier with Resistive load:  1) During positive half cycle of AC supply, a is positive with respect to b , this makes T1 forward biased and T2 is reverse ... voltage reverses the polarity and T2 is turned off. The operation is as shown in waveforms.

Description : Define for polyphase circuit (i) Balanced load (ii) Unbalanced load. Draw one example circuit for each type of load.

Answer : i) Balanced Load: Balanced three phase load is defined as star or delta connection of three equal impedances having equal real parts and equal imaginary parts.  Example circuit:  ii) ... satisfy the condition of balance, then it is called as unbalanced load.  Example circuit:

Description : Why does the speed of a DC shunt motor decrease as the load increases?

Answer : Because if the load is increasing then the torque must also be increase. If not then the speed of motor will decrease.

Description : Define the terms: i) Tariff ii) Fuel surcharge iii) Electricity Duty iv) Connected load

Answer : i) Tariff: The rate at which a consumer is charged for the consumption of electricity is called as tariff. OR The amount of money framed by the supplier for the supply of electrical energy ... is the total wattage of all appliances which are used by the consumer on his sanctioned connection. 

Description : Define the following terms related to tariff: (i) Connected load (ii) Unit consumed (iii) Fixed charges (iv) Electricity Tax 

Answer : (i) Connected load  It is the sum of the power ratings (Watts or kW or MW) of all devices and machines existing (installed) in the premises of consumer. It is used to decide the ... a percentage of the total electricity bill which includes all amounts that go to the electricity supply agency. 

Description : Define the following: i) Residential load ii) Industrial load

Answer : i) Residential load: The electrical load which is used in residential installation is called as residential load. E.g. incandescent lamp, florescent tube, fan ,5A socket &15A socket etc.   ii ... 3-ph any type of motor, electric furnace ,oven,welding transformer and any power load etc. 

Description : Compare base load plant with peak load plant on any two points.

Answer : Points Base load plant Peak load plant Definition The power plant which supplies base load of load curve is known as base load plant  The power plant which supplies ... ,thermal,nuclear power station Small capacity storage hydro,pumped storage hydro,gas,diesel power station.

Description : State why nuclear power plants are used as base load plants and diesel power plants as a peak load plant. 

Answer : 1. Because of following points Nuclear power plant used as base load power plant:-  1. Nuclear power plants is very economical for producing bulk amount of electric power 2. Nuclear power plant is reliable ... . The plants can be put on load easily. 4. Diesel engines take less time to make OFF.

Description : Define each of following terms: i) Connected load ii) Spinning reserve. 

Answer : i) Connected Load :- It is the sum of load of all equipment connected to supply system which are in use or not in use of each consumer. ii) Spinning Reserve:- It is reserved generating capacity in operation and connected to bus bar and ready to take a load.

Description : Define balanced 3 phase load.

Answer : Balanced 3 phase Load: Balanced three phase load is defined as star or delta connection of three equal impedances having equal real parts and equal imaginary parts. It takes same current of equal magnitude and equal phase angle.

Description : Define balanced and unbalanced load in three phase circuit.

Answer : Balanced Load: When all the imedances of 3 phases are equal in magnitude and of same nature then load is said to be balanced.  Unbalanced Load: When all the imedances of 3 phases are not equal in magnitude and of different nature then load is said to be unbalanced.

Description : Define load and line regulation.

Answer : 1. Load regulation : The load regulation indicates how much the load voltage changes when the load current changes. The load regulation is defined as:  % Load regulation = (VNL-VFL) / VFL *100  ... the power supply. A well-regulated power supply can have a line regulation of less than 0.1%.  

Description : A balanced Delta connected load supplied with 440 V 50 Hz three phase AC supply has R=10 Ohm and L=0.6 mH in is each arm. Calculate line and phase current, active power.

Description : An SSB transmitter produces a peak-to-peak voltage of 200 V across a 100 Ω antenna load. What is the Peak Envelope Power? A) 49.98 W B) 79.98 W C) 99.96 W D) 199.93 W

Answer : An SSB transmitter produces a peak-to-peak voltage of 200 V across a 100 Ω antenna load. What is the Peak Envelope Power? A) 49.98 W B) 79.98 W C) 99.96 W D) 199.93 W

Description : A zener voltage regulator has load requirements of 12 V and 2 A. The zener diode minimum current requirement is 0.2 A. The minimum voltage at input is 24 V. What is the required value of series resistance with source? A) 5.45 Ω B) 6 Ω C) 7.2 Ω D) 6.38 Ω  

Answer : A zener voltage regulator has load requirements of 12 V and 2 A. The zener diode minimum current requirement is 0.2 A. The minimum voltage at input is 24 V. What is the required value of series resistance with source? A) 5.45 Ω B) 6 Ω C) 7.2 Ω D) 6.38 Ω  

Description : A 40 kVA transformer has a core loss of 400 W and a full load copper loss of 800 W. The proportion of full load at maximum efficiency is

Answer : A 40 kVA transformer has a core loss of 400 W and a full load copper loss of 800 W. The proportion of full load at maximum efficiency is 0.707

Description : A 240 V, dc shunt motor draws 15 A while supplying the rated load at a speed of 80 rad/s. The armature resistance is 0.5 W and the field winding resistance is 80 W. The net Voltage across armature resistance at the time of plugging will be

Answer : A 240 V, dc shunt motor draws 15 A while supplying the rated load at a speed of 80 rad/s. The armature resistance is 0.5 W and the field winding resistance is 80 W. The net Voltage across armature resistance at the time of plugging will be 474 V

Description : In load flow Study, a PV bus is treated as a PQ bus when

Answer : Voltage at the bus becomes high 

Description : Load flow studies involve solving simultaneous  (1) linear algebraic equations. (3) linear differential equations. (2) non-linear algebraic equations. (4) non-linear differential equations.

Answer : Load flow studies involve solving simultaneous non-linear algebraic equations.

Description : Load factor is the  (1) Ratio of maximum load on the station to sum of consumer's maximum load.  (2) Ratio of average demand to maximum demand.  (3) Factor used for increasing load.  (4) Reciprocal of (1).

Answer : Load factor is the Ratio of average demand to maximum demand. 

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