# Describe with respect to antenna (i) radiation pattern (ii) directive gain (iii) power gam (iv) polarization

Describe with respect to antenna (i) radiation pattern (ii) directive gain (iii) power gam (iv) polarization

(i) Radiation pattern:-A graph or diagram which tells us about the manner in which an antenna radiates more power in different directions is known as the radiation patteren of antenna.

(ii) Directive gain:- Directive gain is defined as the ratio of the power desity in a particular direction of one antenna to the power density that would be radiated byisotropic antenna in the same direction.

(iii)Power gain:-The power gain of an antenna is defined as the ratio of power fed to an isotropic antenna to the power fed to a directional antenna, to develop the same field strength at the same direction.

(iv)Polarization:-Polarization is defined as the direction of the electric vector in the electromagnetic wave radiated by the transmitting antenna.

## Related questions

Description : Define the following terms: (i) Polarization (ii) Antenna gain (iii)Antenna resistance (iv)Directivity

Answer : i) Polarization:- It is defined as the direction of electric field vector in the EM wave radiated by the transmitting antenna. ii) Antenna Gain:- Antenna gain is defined as the ratio of ... in only one direction in which the radiation is maximum. That is directivity = Max. directive gain

Description : Draw radiation pattern for following antenna i) Yagi-Uda antenna ii) Loop antenna iii) Dish antenna iv) Horn antenna

Answer : Type of antenna Radiation Patteren  Yagi-Uda antenna Loop antenna Dish antenna Horn antenna

Description : Define the following terms related to antennas; (i) Antenna resistance (ii) Directivity (iii) Antenna gain (iv) Power density

Answer : Antenna Resistance - The resistance of an antenna has two components: 1. Its radiation resistance due to conversion of power into electromagnetic waves 2. The resistance due to actual losses in the ... the transmitter power divided by the surface area of a sphere (4πR2) at that distance.

Description : Draw the radiation pattern for Dipole antenna: (i) Half wave dipole (ii) Folded dipole.

Answer : The radiation pattern for Half wave dipole antenna The radiation pattern for Folded dipole antenna.

Description : Write one application of following antenna i. Rectangular antenna ii. Dish antenna iii. Yagi-Uda antenna iv. Horn antenna

Answer : i. Rectangular antenna is used in direction finding in portable recievers. ii. Dish antenna is used to transmit and receive signal from satellite. iii. Yagi-Uda antenna is used in HF and VHF range as a TV receiving antenna. iv. Horn antenna is used in satellite tracking.

Description : An antenna has a radiation resistance of 72 Ω a loss resistance of 8 Ω and a power gain of 16. Find efficiency and directivity.

Answer : An antenna has a radiation resistance of 72 Ω a loss resistance of 8 Ω and a power gain of 16. Find efficiency and directivity.

Description : Explain loop antenna with neat sketch. Draw radiation pattern. State its advantages and applications.

Answer : Loop antenna:-The single turn coil carrying RF current through it having length less than the wavelength.   Advantages:- 1. highly directive 2. Small size Applications:- 1. For direction finding 2. In portable receivers 3. In navigation

Description : Draw Yagiuda antenna with its radiation pattern.

Answer : Construction of Yagi-Uda Antenna Radiation Pattern of Yagi-Uda Antenna

Description : Compare PAM, PWM, and PPM on the basis of i. Variable characteristics ii. Bandwidth iii. Information contained in iv. Transmitted power

Answer : Compare PAM, PWM, and PPM on the basis of i. Variable characteristics ii. Bandwidth iii. Information contained in iv. Transmitted power

Description : Draw the structure of horn antenna and its radiation pattern. List its any two applications.

Answer : The structure of horn antenna Radiation pattern of Horn Antenna Application:- i) Used at microwave frequency. ii) Used in satellite tracking

Description : a) For a transmission line, Find SWR and reflection coefficient R if, i. There is no reflected voltage. ii. Reflected voltage and incident voltage is equal. iii. If reflected voltage=20V and incident voltage=10V. iv. If reflected voltage=10V and incident voltage =20V.

Answer : reflection coefficient R=Vr/Vi i. There is no reflected voltage. i.e,Vr=0 R=0 SWR= 1+R/1-R=1 ii. Reflected voltage and incident voltage is equal. Vr=Vi; R=1 SWR= 1+R/1-R=1+1/1-1=infinity iii. If reflected ... and incident voltage =20V. Vr=10 and Vi=20 R=10/20=0.5 SWR= 1+R/1-R=1+.5/1-.5=3

Description : Differentiate between AM and FM on the basis of: (i) Definition (ii) Bandwidth (iii) Modulation Index (iv) Application

Answer : Compare AM and FM on the basis of i)Definition ii)Bandwidth iii) Wave propogation iv)Number of sidebands

Description : Explain half dipole antenna ( Resonant antenna ) with its radiation patteren.

Answer : Half wave dipole antenna Explanation:  1. It is a resonant antenna 2. It is exact half wavelength (λ /2) long & open circuited at one end. 3. The dipole antennas have ... pattern is bidirectional.  The radiation pattern of half wave dipole antenna is - The radiation pattern

Description : Consider the following statements and select the correct answer from the code given below: i. Rajasthan receives the highest solar radiation in the country. ii. India has the fifth largest installed wind power in the world. iii. The ... (A) i and ii (B) i, ii and iii (C) ii and iii (D) i and iv

Description : Compare sky wave and space wave propagation w.r.t. following points. (i) Frequency range (ii) Effect of fading (iii)Polarization (iv)Application

Answer : Sr. No  Parameters Sky Wave Propagation Space Wave Propagation 1 Frequency range 3 MHz to 30 MHz  Above 30 MHz 2 Effect of fading Problem of fading is ... horizontally Polarized 4 Application RadioBroadcasting (SW Range) Used for TV and FM broadcasting

Description : Draw the structure and state applications of: i) Ferrite loop (rod) antenna ii) Horn antenna

Answer : Horn antenna: Application:- i) Used at microwave frequency. ii) Used in satellite tracking.  Ferrite loop antenna: Application:- In Am radio receiver to receive MW and SW band signals. In FM radio receiver

Description : Write the code of signals used in ranging with respect to : i) Correct position ii) Fix the ranging rod iii) Vertical position of ranging rod iv) Move slowly to left of observer

Answer : i) Correct position : Both hands above Head and then Brought Down ii) Fix the ranging rod : Both Arms extended forward horizontally and the hands depressed briskly iii) Vertical position of ranging rod : 1 ... and moved to the Left iv) Move slowly to left of observer : Slow sweeps with Left Hand

Description : Define following with respect to television: (i) Aspect ratio (ii) Vertical & Horizontal Resolution (iii) Interlace scanning (iv) Image continuity

Answer : (i) Aspect ratio: The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. The frame adopted in all television systems is rectangular with width/height ratio ... (mix) the changing levels of brightness in the scene. This is called as Image Continuity.

Description : Define the following terms with respect to protective relays i) Relay time ii) Reset current iii) Plug setting multiplier and iv) Time setting multiplier

Answer : 1) Relay Time: The time interval between occurrence of fault and closure of relay contacts.  2) Reset Current: The value of current below which the relay resets and comes back to ... The adjustment arrangement provided for setting the operation time of relay is known as Time setting multiplier.

Description : Define with respect to FET:- (i) Static drain resistance (ii) Dynamic resistance (iii) Trans conductance (iv) Pinch-off voltage

Answer : (i) Static drain resistance- It is the ratio of drain source voltage (ΔVDS) to the drain current (ID) at constant gate-source voltage. It can be expressed as, Rd = (VDS)/(ID) at ... of charge carrier and the value of drain current reaches its constant saturation value is called pinch off voltage.

Description : Compare BJT common base configuration with common collector configuration on the basis of (i) Current gain (ii) Voltage gain (iii) Input impedance (iv) Output impedance

Answer : Parameter Common Base Common Collector Current gain Low (About 1) High (1+β) Voltage gain High 1  Input impedance  Low High Output impedance High Low

Description : Describe the following points with respect to manufacturing of Urea. (i) Temperature (ii) Pressure (iii) Formation of Biuret

Answer : Manufacturing of Urea w.r.t following points 1. Temperature: Urea production rate increases as temperature increases up to 180oC and then fall sharply. 2. Pressure: Urea production rate increases as pressure ... before sending to prilling tower. 2NH2 .CO.NH2 = NH2.CO.NH.CO.NH2 + NH

Description : Which of the following set of statements represents acceptable propositions in respect of teaching-learning relationships? Choose the correct code to indicate your Answer. (i) When students fail in a test, it is the teacher who fails. ( ... (iv), (v) and (vi) (D) (i), (ii), (v) and (vi)

Description : In a FM system, the maximum deviation is 75KHz. Find bandwidth for modulating frequency i. fm=500Hz ii. fm=5KHz iii. fm=10KHz Draw conclusion for bandwidth of FM from answer.

Answer : Given deviation∆=75kHz i) fm=500Hz bandwidth B.W=2(∆+fm)  =2(75k+500)=151kHz  ii). fm=5KHz bandwidth B.W=2(∆+fm)  =2(75k+5k)=160KHz iii) fm=10KHz bandwidth B.W=2(∆+fm)  =2(75k+10k)=170KHz As the modulating frequency increases bandwidth also increases.

Description : State the function of following with respect to hydro power plant : I) Storage reservoir II) Surge tank II) Spillways IV) Trash rack

Answer : I) Storage reservoir: It is the basic requirement of hydroelectric plant. Its purpose is to store water which may be utilized to run the prime mover to produce electrical power. A reservoir stores during ... of nozzles of impulse turbines. It is made of steel bars and is placed across the intake.

Description : Which set of learner characteristics may be considered helpful in designing effective teaching-learning systems? Select the correct alternative from the codes given below: (i) Prior experience of learners in respect of the subject. (ii) ... iii), (iv) and (v) (D) (iii), (iv), (v) and (vi)

Description : Define: i) Q point ii) DC loadline iii) Need of biasing iv) Current gain

Answer : i) Q point: It is the point on the load line which represents the dc current through a transistor (ICQ) and the voltage across it (VCEQ), when no ac signal is applied.  ii) DC load line: The ... region is as desired.  iv) Current Gain: It is a ratio of output current to input current.

Description : Identify type of BJT configuration having following features : (i) BJT configuration having the least current gain. (ii) KIT configuration called as voltage follower. (iii) BJT ... configuration suitable for voltage amplification. (vi) BJT configuration having the least output impedance.

Answer : (i) BJT configuration having the least current gain : Common Base Configuration  (ii) KIT configuration called as voltage follower: Common Collector Configuration  (iii) BJT ... Emitter Configuration  (vi) BJT configuration having the least output impedance: Common Collector Configuration

Description : Differentiate between positive and negative feedback on the basis of . (i) overall phase shift (ii) voltage gain (iii) stability (iv) applications

Answer : Compare positive feedback and negative feedback on the basis of: (i) Gain (ii) Bandwidth (iii) Phase shift (iv) Stability

Description : Define each of following terms of operational amplifiers i) Slew rate ii) Input offset voltage iii) Voltage gain iv) Input capacitance

Answer : i) Slew rate:- Maximum rate of change of o/p voltage per unit of time. It is express in volt/µsec.  ii) Input offset voltage:- The voltage that must be applied between two ... capacitance that can be measured at either be inverting or non-inverting terminal with other terminal connected to ground.

Description : The directive gain of an antenna: (1) is less than or equal to 1 (2) is greater than or equal to 1 (3) lies between 0 and directivity of antenna (4) is greater than directivity of antenna

Answer : The directive gain of an antenna: lies between 0 and directivity of antenna

Description : Explain the working of half dipole antenna with its radiation pattern.

Answer : Half wave dipole antenna diagram Explanation: 1. It is a resonant antenna 2. It is exact half wavelength (λ /2) long & open circuited at one end. 3. The dipole ... waves exist. Hence radiation pattern is bidirectional. The radiation pattern of half wave dipole antenna is -

Description : Explain structure of rectangular microstrip patch antenna with its radiation pattern.

Answer : In telecommunication, a microstrip antenna (also known as a printed antenna) usually means an antenna fabricated using microstrip techniques on a printed circuit board (PCB).It is a kind of ... microstrip transmission line with equivalent loads on either end to represent the radiation loss.

Description : Sketch of Yagi-Uda antenna with its radiation pattern. Explain each element of YagiUda antenna

Answer : Radiation Pattern:- Explanation- A Yagi-Uda antenna, commonly known as a Yagi antenna, is a directional antenna consisting of multiple parallel elements in a line, usually halfwave dipoles ... one or two directors and reflectors give high gain and beam width per unit area of array.

Description : A superheterodyne radio receiver with an IF of 455KHZ is turned to 1000KHZ. Find: (i) Image frequency (ii) Local oscillator frequency

Answer : Given Intermediate Frequency fi=455KHz Signal frequency =fs=1000KHz Local oscillator frequency fo=fs+fi  Fo=1000KHz+455KHz  =1455KHz Image frequency is the input frequency which produces the same intermediate frequency fsi=fs+2fi  =1000KHz+2*455KHz  =1910KHz

Description : Define and explain the term beam width related to antenna with a sketch.

Answer : Definition: The beam width of an antenna is described as the angles created by comparing the half power point (3dB) on the main radiation lobe to its maximum power point. As an example the beam width ... max voltage at center of lobe (these point are known as half power points.) Sketch-

Description : State the types of electromagnetic polarization? Define any one of it.

Answer : Transverse electromagnetic wave:- The polarization of a plane EM wave is simply the orientation of the electric field vector with respect to the surface (i.e. looking at the horizon) If ... the field strength varies with change in polarization the wave is said to have an elliptical polarization

Description : Define electromagnetic wave and polarization.

Answer : Electromagnetic wave:-An electromagnetic wave such as light consists of a coupled oscillating electric field and magnetic field which are always perpendicular; by convention Polarization:-polarization" of electromagnetic waves refers to the direction of the electric field.

Description : What is electromagnetic polarization.

Answer : The polarization of a plane EM wave is simply the orientation of the electric field vector with respect to the surface (i.e. looking at the horizon)

Description : Describe the following terms: (i) Keyword (ii) Identifier (iii) Variable (iv) Constant

Answer : (i) Keyword: Keywords are special words in C programming which have their own predefined meaning. The functions and meanings of these words cannot be altered. Some keywords in C Programming are if, while, ... or a string literal. There are enumeration constants as well. Example: 121 234 3.14

Description : Describe the use of following methods: (i) Drawoval ( ) (ii) getFont ( ) (iii) drawRect ( ) (iv) getFamily ( )

Answer : (i) Drawoval ( ): Drawing Ellipses and circles: To draw an Ellipses or circles used drawOval() method can be used. Syntax: void drawOval(int top, int left, int width, int height) The ellipse is drawn ... the family of the font. String family = f.getFamily(); Where f is an object of Font class

Description : A series combination of resistance 100 ohm and capacitance 50µf is connected in series to a 230 V, 50HZ supply. Calculate (i) Capacitive reactance (ii) Current (iii) Power factor (iv) Power consumed

Answer : For RC series circuit

Description : Explain the need to consider following factors in design matrix of embedded system: (i) Processor (ii) Memory (iii) Power (iv) Non- recurring engineering cost.

Answer : 1. Processor: Selection of processor depends upon amount of processing power and the register width required. Powerful 8bit, 16 bit, 32 bit & 64bit processors are available. The clock speed ... system is designed any number of units can be manufactured without incurring any additional design cost.

Description : Define following terms related to logic families : (i) Noise Margin (ii) FAN-OUT (iii) Propagation delay (iv) Power dissipation

Answer : i) Noise immunity is measured in terms of noise margin. High state Noise margin = VNH = VOH(min) - VIH(min) Low state Noise margin = VNL = VIL(max) - VOL(max) i) The fan-out is defined as the ... logical 0 state (HIGH to LOW) iii) Average power dissipation is defined as PD(avg) = ICC(avg) * VCC

Description : Which of the following is not true with respect to a trackball and/or spaceball ? I. A trackball is a two dimensional positioning device while as a spaceball provides six degrees of freedom II. Unlike the trackball a spaceball does ... of freedom. (A) I & II (B) II & III (C) II only (D) III only

Answer : (D) III only

Description : Explain factories Act 1948 with respect to (i) General duties of occupier (ii) Approval, licencing and registration of factories (iii) Duties of the inspector.

Answer : Factories Act 1948: (i) General duties of occupier:  (1) Every occupier shall ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all workers while they ... be compelled under this section to answer any question or give any evidence tending to incriminate himself.

Description : Which of the following is/are advantage(s) of a functional structure? I. Permits growth and diversity of products and services. II. Power and prestige. III. Clarity about career paths. IV. Furnishes measurable training ground ... (c) Both (II) and (III) above ; (d) (I), (II) and (III) above

Answer : (c) Both (II) and (III) above ;

Description : Compare between class A and class B amplifier on the basis of (i) Efficiency (ii) Power (iii) Position of Q- point (iv) O/P distortion

Answer : Parameter Class A Class B

Description : Compare Class A ,Class B, Class C and class AB power amplifiers on the basis of: i)Angle of conduction ii)Efficiency iii)Position of operating pointing power dissipation iv)Distortion

Answer : Compare Class A ,Class B, Class C and class AB power amplifiers on the basis of: i)Angle of conduction ii)Efficiency iii)Position of operating pointing power dissipation iv)Distortion

Description : State the function of following components of a nuclear power station: i) Moderator ii) Shielding iii) Control rod iv) Coolant

Answer : i) Function of Moderator :- Moderator is to moderate or reduce the speed of fast neutron to help the fission process.  ii) Function of sheilding : Shielding is to protect environment, ... from reactor core and transfer it in heat exchanger for producing steam at high pressure and temperature.

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