# Define selectivity and sensitivity of AM Receiver.

Define selectivity and sensitivity of AM Receiver.

Selectivity:-It needs to accept signals of the wanted frequency and reject other unwanted frequencies.

Sensitivity:-The sensitivity of a radio receiver is its ability to amplify weak signals. It is often defined in terms of the voltage that must be applied to the receiver input terminals to give a standard output power, measured at the output terminals.

## Related questions

Description : Explain the following characteristics of AM radio receiver: (i) Sensitivity (ii) Selectivity.

Answer : Sensitivity:- The ability to amplify the weak signals is called sensitivity. It is the function of overall receiver gain. Sensitivity of radio receiver is decided by the gain of the RF IF ... perfectly the receiver is able to select the desired carrier frequency and reject other frequencies.

Description : Draw practical set-up and explain the procedure to measure selectivity of radio receiver.

Answer : Procedure to measure selectivity of radio receiver: Throughout the measurement the receiver is kept tuned to desired frequency 950 Khz. Now the generator output frequency is deviated below ... the generator output voltage is adjusted to get a standard 50 miliwatt receiver output power.

Description : A super heterodyne AM receiver is tuned to a station operating at 1200 KHz .Find local oscillator frequency and image frequency.

Answer : A super heterodyne AM receiver is tuned to a station operating at 1200 KHz Intermediate frequency is 455KHz. IF frequency=f0-fs Local oscillator frequency is f0=IF +fs=455K+1200K=1655kHz The image frequency which gives the same IF is f0+2*IF=2110KHz

Description : Why should local oscillator frequency be greater than signal frequency in AM receiver? Also explain why IF has constant value?

Answer : Reason for LO frequency to be greater than signal frequency The local oscillator frequency (f0) is made greater than signal frequency (Fs) in radio receiver: Local oscillator frequency range is 995 ... frequency of desired signal because the IF is constant and same for all the incoming RF signal.

Description : Define sensitivity with graph.

Answer : Define sensitivity with graph.

Description : Define modulation index in AM and give its formula.

Answer : In AM wave, the modulation index (m) is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the modulating signal (Vm ) to the amplitude of carrier signal (Vc). m = Vm / Vc

Description : Define modulation? State the desirable value of modulation index of AM.

Answer : Modulation: It is the process in which any of these Parameters (Amplitude, Frequency, Phase) of high frequency signal (carrier signal) are varied in accordance with low frequency signal(modulating signal) For an AM, modulation index range is 0 to 1.

Description : Define following terms related to measuring instruments: i) Sensitivity ii) Selectivity.

Answer : i) Sensitivity: It is the ratio of the change in output signal to the change in input signal of quantity being measured.  ii) Selectivity: It is the term to describe fulfillment of the requirements of measurement by an instrument to be suitable for use in a given situation.

Description : Draw block diagram of FM receiver and explain the use of limiter circuit.

Answer : Diagram Explanation Amplitude limiter: The function of amplitude limiter is to remove all amplitude variation of FM carrier voltage that may occur due to atmospheric disturbances. Use of amplitude limiter makes the system less noisy.

Description : State the IF frequency and bandwidth of FM receiver.

Description : Describe the functions of mixer and local oscillator in radio receiver

Answer : Frequency Mixer:- The function of frequency mixer is to heterodyne signal frequency fs and local oscillator frequency fo. At the output, it produces the difference frequency known as ... local oscillator frequency fo is then mixed with incoming frequency to give intermediate frequency.

Description : Draw the TRF receiver block diagram and explain its working.

Answer : Explanation:- 1. TRF receivers are simple and having high sensitivity. The AM transmission takes place in MW band and SW band. MW frequency range is 540KHz to 1640KHz. 2. ... power level to drive the loudspeaker. 7. The loudspeaker converts electrical signal into original sound information.

Description : Explain the working of amplitude limiter in FM receiver with circuit diagram.

Answer : Amplitude limiter: The function of amplitude limiter is to remove all amplitude variation of FM carrier voltage that may occur due to atmospheric disturbances. Use of amplitude limiter makes the system less noisy  Circuit Diagram:

Description : A superheterodyne radio receiver with an IF of 455KHZ is turned to 1000KHZ. Find: (i) Image frequency (ii) Local oscillator frequency

Answer : Given Intermediate Frequency fi=455KHz Signal frequency =fs=1000KHz Local oscillator frequency fo=fs+fi  Fo=1000KHz+455KHz  =1455KHz Image frequency is the input frequency which produces the same intermediate frequency fsi=fs+2fi  =1000KHz+2*455KHz  =1910KHz

Answer : Disadvantages of TRF Receiver: 1. Instability due to oscillatory nature of RF amplifier. 2. Variation in bandwidth over tuning range. 3. Insufficient selectivity at high frequencies 4. Poor adjacent channel rejection capability

Description : Describe the block diagram of FM superhetrodyne receiver

Answer : RF amplifier:- There are two important functions of RF amplifier: 1) To increase the strength of weak RF signal. 2) To reject image frequency signal. In FM broadcast the ... FM broadcast, the maximum modulating frequency is 15 kHz. Hence the audio amplifier must have large bandwidth.

Answer : Drawbacks of TRF Receiver: 1. Instability due to oscillatory nature of RF amplifier. 2. Variation in bandwidth over tuning range. 3. Insufficient selectivity at high frequencies 4. Poor adjacent channel rejection capability.

Description : Draw the block diagram of FM super heterodyne radio receiver with waveforms.

Description : Show that AM wave consist of two side bands and carrier. Also prove the bandwidth of AM is double of the modulating frequency.

Description : Give the expression for modulation index for AM and FM.

Answer : 1.Modulation index for AM ma=Vm / Vc Where Vm is modulating voltage Vc is the carrier voltage 2.Modulation index for FM mf=δ /fm where δ is the deviation fm is the modulating frequency

Description : Differentiate between AM and FM on the basis of: (i) Definition (ii) Bandwidth (iii) Modulation Index (iv) Application

Answer : Compare AM and FM on the basis of i)Definition ii)Bandwidth iii) Wave propogation iv)Number of sidebands

Description : For AM, fc =500kHz , fm = 5 kHz Determine: (i) Upper and lower sideband frequencies (ii) Bandwidth

Answer : Given data fc = 500KHz , fm = 5KHz USB =fc+fm USB = 500+5  =505 KHz. LSB =fc – fm LSB = 500 – 5  =495 KHz Bandwidth = 2fm .  = 2* 5 =10 KHz

Description : Explain effect of 'm' on AM with neat waveforms.

Answer : i)m< 1  If m < 1 or if the percentage of modulation is less than 100% the this type of modulation is known as under modulation The amplitude of modulating signal less than carrier ... greater amplitude part of its information is lost in the process of modulation which is undesirable.

Description : Explain the demodulation of AM signal using diode detector.

Answer : Simple diode detector:- Explanation:- This is essentially just a half wave rectifier which charges a capacitor to a voltage nearly to the peak voltage of the incoming AM waveform s(t). ... detector output is proportional to the signal strength. Stronger Am signal higher is the dc AGC voltage.

Description : Draw the block diagram of AM transmitter, explain its operation.

Answer : AM transmitter is of two types i)High Level AM Transmitter ii)Low Level AM Transmitter i) RF crystal oscillator: It is a source of carrier signal of desired frequency. The circuit is ... AM signal is then applied to the transmitting antenna which radiates this AM signal into air or space.

Description : In a broadcast communication receiver, most of the receiver selectivity is achieved in: (1) RF section (2) IF section (3) Mixer (4) Local oscillator

Answer : A receiver has poor selectivity. It will also have poor blocking.

Description : Define and explain the term beam width related to antenna with a sketch.

Answer : Definition: The beam width of an antenna is described as the angles created by comparing the half power point (3dB) on the main radiation lobe to its maximum power point. As an example the beam width ... max voltage at center of lobe (these point are known as half power points.) Sketch-

Description : Define PAM, PWM, and PPM. Draw waveforms.

Answer : Pulse amplitude modulation is defined as a process of varying the amplitude of the carrier pulse in accordance to the modulating signal variations. Pulse width modulation is defined as a ... of varying the position of the carrier pulse, in accordance to the modulating signal variations.

Description : Define stub. Explain single and double stub in brief with neat sketch.

Answer : Stub:- Stub is the piece of short circuited transmission line which is used to tune out the reactance of the load when connected across the transmission line as close as possible ... but lengths are independently adjustable. The double stub matching provides wide range of impedance matching.

Description : Define electromagnetic wave and polarization.

Answer : Electromagnetic wave:-An electromagnetic wave such as light consists of a coupled oscillating electric field and magnetic field which are always perpendicular; by convention Polarization:-polarization" of electromagnetic waves refers to the direction of the electric field.

Description : Define the term baluns and explain where is it used?

Answer : A type of electrical transformer used to connect an unbalanced circuit to a balanced oneORA balun is a type of transformer: it's used to convert an unbalanced signal to a balanced ... :- In audio applications, baluns convert between high-impedance unbalanced and low impedance balanced lines.

Description : Define: (i) Image frequency and (ii) Double spotting

Answer : i)Image frequency:- Image Frequency is defined as the signal frequency plus twice the intermediate frequency. It is denoted as fsi = fs+2fi Where, fs = Signal Frequency fi =intermediate frequency ... It is due to the poor front end selectivity i.e., inadequate image frequency rejection.

Description : Define the following terms related to antennas; (i) Antenna resistance (ii) Directivity (iii) Antenna gain (iv) Power density

Answer : Antenna Resistance - The resistance of an antenna has two components: 1. Its radiation resistance due to conversion of power into electromagnetic waves 2. The resistance due to actual losses in the ... the transmitter power divided by the surface area of a sphere (4πR2) at that distance.

Description : Define critical frequency w.r. to wave propagation.

Answer : Define critical frequency w.r. to wave propagation.

Description : Define VSWR with refernce to standing waves.

Answer : Voltage Standing Wave Ratio: The voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is the ratio of max voltage to min voltage. VSWR= VMAX /VMIN

Description : Define the transmission line? Draw it‟s general equivalent circuit.

Answer : Transmission line: A conductor or conductors designed to carry electricity or an electrical signal over large distances with minimum losses and distortion.  Equivalent circuit:

Description : Define: 1)Frequency 2)Bandwidth 3)Wavelength 4)Time period

Answer : Frequency: Frequency is the number of cycles per second. Bandwidth: A range of frequencies within a given band, in particular that used for transmitting a signal. Wavelength: Wavelength can be defined as ... for one complete cycle of vibration to pass a given point.  OR Time period=1/frequency

Description : State the types of electromagnetic polarization? Define any one of it.

Answer : Transverse electromagnetic wave:- The polarization of a plane EM wave is simply the orientation of the electric field vector with respect to the surface (i.e. looking at the horizon) If ... the field strength varies with change in polarization the wave is said to have an elliptical polarization

Description : Define fading? List the causes.

Answer : The fluctuation in signal strength at a receiver, which is mainly due to the interference of two waves which left the same source but arrived at the destination by different paths, is known ... , such as irrigation, or from multiple transmission paths, irregular earth surfaces, and varying terrains.

Description : Define pre-emphasis. State its need. Draw the circuit of pre-emphasis.

Answer : Definition- The artificial boosting of higher modulating frequencies to reduce the effect of noise is called as pre-emphasis. Need:- The artificial boosting of higher audio modulating ... by increasing the amplitude of modulating signal at higher frequencies. Circuit diagram

Description : Define pulse modulation. State its types.

Answer : Pulse Modulation - consists essentially of sampling analog information signals and then converting those samples into discrete pulses. OR It consists essentially of sampling analog information signals and then converting those ... PAM - PWM - PPM  ii) Digital Pulse Modulation - PCM - DM - ADM

Description : Define modulation index in FM. What is maximum value of deviation ratio.

Answer : Modulation Index of FM: It is defined as the ratio of Frequency Deviation (δ) to the modulating signal frequency (fm). (OR)

Description : Define the following terms: (i) Polarization (ii) Antenna gain (iii)Antenna resistance (iv)Directivity

Answer : i) Polarization:- It is defined as the direction of electric field vector in the EM wave radiated by the transmitting antenna. ii) Antenna Gain:- Antenna gain is defined as the ratio of ... in only one direction in which the radiation is maximum. That is directivity = Max. directive gain

Description : Define the terms: 1) Maximum usable frequency 2) Fading

Answer : 1)Maximum usable frequency:- Maximum usable frequency is defined as the limiting frequency ,when the angle of incidence is other than the normal . OR The highest frequency that can be used for sky ... which left the same source but arrived at the destination by different paths is known as fading.

Description : Define standing wave ratio.

Answer : Standing wave ratio is defined as the ratio of maximum voltage (Vmax) to minimum voltage (Vmin). Standing wave ratio is also defined as the ratio of maximum current (Imax) to minimum current (Imin).

Description : Define: Base band signal with one example.

Answer : The electrical equivalent of the original information signal is known as the Baseband signal. Example:-The information or the input signal to a communication system can be analog i.e., sound, picture or it can be digital e.g. the computer data.

Description : Draw the block diagram of AM. Super heterodyne ratio receiver and state the function of each block

Answer : AM super heterodyne receiver works on the principle of super heterodyning. In the super heterodyne receiver, the incoming signal voltage is combined with a Signal generated in the receiver. The ... constant output level at the speaker even though the signal strength at the antenna varies.

Description : Define : (i) Fidelity (ii) Selectivity

Answer : (i) Fidelity:-It is defined as the ability of an audio amplifier to reproduce all the sound frequencies faithfully i.e. amplify all of them equally.  (ii) Selectivity:-It is defined ... ear to select sound signals of particular frequencies over those of some other frequencies of same intensity.

Description : A feedback amplifier has a gain of 1000 without feedback. Find the gain with feedback and the amount of feedback in dB for a negative feedback of 10%.

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