# Differentiate between AM and FM on the basis of: (i) Definition (ii) Bandwidth (iii) Modulation Index (iv) Application

Differentiate between AM and FM on the basis of: (i) Definition (ii) Bandwidth (iii) Modulation Index (iv) Application

Differentiate between AM and FM on the basis of: (i) Definition (ii) Bandwidth (iii) Modulation Index (iv) Application

Compare AM and FM on the basis of i)Definition ii)Bandwidth iii) Wave propogation iv)Number of sidebands

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Description : Compare PAM, PWM, and PPM on the basis of i. Variable characteristics ii. Bandwidth iii. Information contained in iv. Transmitted power

Answer : Compare PAM, PWM, and PPM on the basis of i. Variable characteristics ii. Bandwidth iii. Information contained in iv. Transmitted power

Description : Compare narrow band FM with wide-band FM w.r.t. following points. (i) Modulation index (ii) Maximum deviation (iii)Range of modulating frequency (iv)Application

Answer : Sr. No Parameters Narrow band FM Wide band FM 1 Modulation index Less than or slightly greater than 1 Greater than 1  2 Maximum deviation ... like police wireless, ambulance etc. Entertainment broadcasting can be used for high quality music transmission

Description : Compare AM with FM with respect to following points: a) Definition. b) Modulation index. c) Bandwidth. d) Side band.

Answer : Parameters AM FM Definition It is the process in which the amplitude of carrier signal is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of modulating signal keeping frequency and ... frequency deviation. Side band There are two sidebands Infinite number of sideband

Description : For AM, fc =500kHz , fm = 5 kHz Determine: (i) Upper and lower sideband frequencies (ii) Bandwidth

Answer : Given data fc = 500KHz , fm = 5KHz USB =fc+fm USB = 500+5  =505 KHz. LSB =fc – fm LSB = 500 – 5  =495 KHz Bandwidth = 2fm .  = 2* 5 =10 KHz

Description : Give the expression for modulation index for AM and FM.

Answer : 1.Modulation index for AM ma=Vm / Vc Where Vm is modulating voltage Vc is the carrier voltage 2.Modulation index for FM mf=δ /fm where δ is the deviation fm is the modulating frequency

Description : In a FM system, the maximum deviation is 75KHz. Find bandwidth for modulating frequency i. fm=500Hz ii. fm=5KHz iii. fm=10KHz Draw conclusion for bandwidth of FM from answer.

Answer : Given deviation∆=75kHz i) fm=500Hz bandwidth B.W=2(∆+fm)  =2(75k+500)=151kHz  ii). fm=5KHz bandwidth B.W=2(∆+fm)  =2(75k+5k)=160KHz iii) fm=10KHz bandwidth B.W=2(∆+fm)  =2(75k+10k)=170KHz As the modulating frequency increases bandwidth also increases.

Description : Differentiate between positive and negative feedback on the basis of . (i) overall phase shift (ii) voltage gain (iii) stability (iv) applications

Answer : Compare positive feedback and negative feedback on the basis of: (i) Gain (ii) Bandwidth (iii) Phase shift (iv) Stability

Description : Write one application of following antenna i. Rectangular antenna ii. Dish antenna iii. Yagi-Uda antenna iv. Horn antenna

Answer : i. Rectangular antenna is used in direction finding in portable recievers. ii. Dish antenna is used to transmit and receive signal from satellite. iii. Yagi-Uda antenna is used in HF and VHF range as a TV receiving antenna. iv. Horn antenna is used in satellite tracking.

Description : Define modulation index in FM. What is maximum value of deviation ratio.

Answer : Modulation Index of FM: It is defined as the ratio of Frequency Deviation (δ) to the modulating signal frequency (fm). (OR)

Description : Define modulation index in AM and give its formula.

Answer : In AM wave, the modulation index (m) is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the modulating signal (Vm ) to the amplitude of carrier signal (Vc). m = Vm / Vc

Description : Compare floor inspection and centralized inspection on the basis of (i) Definition. (ii) Measuring instruments used (iii) Suitability. (iv) Mode of inspection.

Answer : Parameters Floor Inspection Centralized Inspection Definition. Inspection is done at the place where the part is made or assembled is called floor inspection. The inspection is done ... Mode of inspection. Online inspection is possible Offline inspection needs to be done.

Description : Define modulation? State the desirable value of modulation index of AM.

Answer : Modulation: It is the process in which any of these Parameters (Amplitude, Frequency, Phase) of high frequency signal (carrier signal) are varied in accordance with low frequency signal(modulating signal) For an AM, modulation index range is 0 to 1.

Description : Compare between simplex and full duplex communication on the basis of: 1) Definition 2) Sketch

Answer : Compare between simplex and full duplex communication on the basis of: 1) Definition 2) Sketch

Description : i) State the significance of modulation index in AM transmission. ii) Explain the effect of modulation index on AM wave with waveforms.

Answer : Significance of modulation index in AM transmission  It is used to determine the strength and quality of transmitted signal. If the modulation index is small, then the amount of variation in ... amplitude part of its information is lost in the process of modulation which is undesirable.

Description : a) For a transmission line, Find SWR and reflection coefficient R if, i. There is no reflected voltage. ii. Reflected voltage and incident voltage is equal. iii. If reflected voltage=20V and incident voltage=10V. iv. If reflected voltage=10V and incident voltage =20V.

Answer : reflection coefficient R=Vr/Vi i. There is no reflected voltage. i.e,Vr=0 R=0 SWR= 1+R/1-R=1 ii. Reflected voltage and incident voltage is equal. Vr=Vi; R=1 SWR= 1+R/1-R=1+1/1-1=infinity iii. If reflected ... and incident voltage =20V. Vr=10 and Vi=20 R=10/20=0.5 SWR= 1+R/1-R=1+.5/1-.5=3

Description : Compare between class A and class B amplifier on the basis of (i) Efficiency (ii) Power (iii) Position of Q- point (iv) O/P distortion

Answer : Parameter Class A Class B

Description : Compare between BJT and FET on the basis of (i) Biolar/Unipolar (ii) Tharmal Runaway (iii) Noise (iv) Applications

Answer : Parameter BJT FET Bipolar/Unipolar It is bipolar device i.e. current in this device is carried by electrons and holes. It is unipolar device i.e. current ... in oscilloscopes, electronic voltmeters and other measuring and testing equipment because of their high input impedance.

Description : Define the following terms related to antennas; (i) Antenna resistance (ii) Directivity (iii) Antenna gain (iv) Power density

Answer : Antenna Resistance - The resistance of an antenna has two components: 1. Its radiation resistance due to conversion of power into electromagnetic waves 2. The resistance due to actual losses in the ... the transmitter power divided by the surface area of a sphere (4πR2) at that distance.

Description : Draw radiation pattern for following antenna i) Yagi-Uda antenna ii) Loop antenna iii) Dish antenna iv) Horn antenna

Answer : Type of antenna Radiation Patteren  Yagi-Uda antenna Loop antenna Dish antenna Horn antenna

Description : Describe with respect to antenna (i) radiation pattern (ii) directive gain (iii) power gam (iv) polarization

Answer : (i) Radiation pattern:-A graph or diagram which tells us about the manner in which an antenna radiates more power in different directions is known as the radiation patteren of antenna.  ( ... as the direction of the electric vector in the electromagnetic wave radiated by the transmitting antenna.

Description : Define the following terms: (i) Polarization (ii) Antenna gain (iii)Antenna resistance (iv)Directivity

Answer : i) Polarization:- It is defined as the direction of electric field vector in the EM wave radiated by the transmitting antenna. ii) Antenna Gain:- Antenna gain is defined as the ratio of ... in only one direction in which the radiation is maximum. That is directivity = Max. directive gain

Description : Compare ground wave and space wave propagation on the basis of: (i) Frequency range (ii) Method of propagation.

Answer : Compare ground wave and space wave propagation on the basis of: (i) Frequency range (ii) Method of propagation.

Description : State the IF frequency and bandwidth of FM receiver.

Description : Encryption is required to (i) protect business information from eavesdropping when it is transmitted on internet (ii)efficiently use the bandwidth available in PSTN (iii) to protect information stored in companies' databases from ... a. i and ii b. ii and iii c. iii and iv d. i and iv

Answer : d. i and iv

Description : Differentiate between retarding and accelerating admixtures with following points. i) Hydration process ii) Setting time iii) Weather condition iv) Use

Answer : The accelerating and retarding admixtures can be compared as follows. Accelerating Admixture  Retarding Admixture Hydration process Due to accelerating admixture, hydration process completes ... where slow hardening of concrete is necessary i.e. in mass concrete structures.

Description : Show that AM wave consist of two side bands and carrier. Also prove the bandwidth of AM is double of the modulating frequency.

Description : Explain the following characteristics of AM radio receiver: (i) Sensitivity (ii) Selectivity.

Answer : Sensitivity:- The ability to amplify the weak signals is called sensitivity. It is the function of overall receiver gain. Sensitivity of radio receiver is decided by the gain of the RF IF ... perfectly the receiver is able to select the desired carrier frequency and reject other frequencies.

Description : Compare detonation and diesel knock on the basis of (i) Fuel Ignition Temperature (ii) Compression Ratio (iii) Speed (iv) inlet temperature (v) inlet pressure (vi) cylinder wall temperature (vii) cylinder size

Answer : Comparison between detonation and diesel knock: Parameter To avoid Detonation in SI Engine  To avoid Diesel knock i) Fuel Ignition Temperature High Low ii) Compression Ratio ... Cylinder wall temperature Low High viii) Cylinder size Small Large

Description : Compare Brazing and Soldering on the basis of : (i) Temperature Used. (ii) Filler Material. (iii) Joint Strength (iv) Applications.

Answer : Comparison of Brazing and Soldering:

Description : Compare series and parallel resonance on the basis of (i) Resonating frequency (ii) Impedance (iii) Current (iv) Magnification

Answer : S. No . Parameter Series Circuit Parallel Circuit 1 Resonating frequency 2 Impedance Minimum, Z = R Maximum, Z = L/CR 3 Current Maximum, I ... , I = V/(L/CR)  4 Magnification Voltage magnification takes place Current magnification takes place

Description : Compare Class A ,Class B, Class C and class AB power amplifiers on the basis of: i)Angle of conduction ii)Efficiency iii)Position of operating pointing power dissipation iv)Distortion

Answer : Compare Class A ,Class B, Class C and class AB power amplifiers on the basis of: i)Angle of conduction ii)Efficiency iii)Position of operating pointing power dissipation iv)Distortion

Description : Compare CC and PC of wattmeter on the basis of:- (i) Connection (ii) Status (iii) Number of turns (iv) Gauge of wire.

Answer : Particulars Current coil (CC) Pressure coil (PC) Connection Connected in series with load Connected in parallel with load Status It is fixed coil in wattmeter It is moving coil in ... number of turns It is having more number of turns Gauge of wire Less More

Description : Differentiate induced draft and forced draft cooling towers based on (i) Location of fan (ii) Corrosion of blades (iii) Efficiency (iv) Fan size

Answer : Differentiate induced draft and forced draft cooling towers based on (i) Location of fan (ii) Corrosion of blades (iii) Efficiency (iv) Fan size

Description : Compare BJT common base configuration with common collector configuration on the basis of (i) Current gain (ii) Voltage gain (iii) Input impedance (iv) Output impedance

Answer : Parameter Common Base Common Collector Current gain Low (About 1) High (1+β) Voltage gain High 1  Input impedance  Low High Output impedance High Low

Description : A hardened firewall host on an intranet (i) has a proxy application gateway program running on it (ii)Allows specified internet users to access specified services in the intranet (iii) Initiates all internet activities requested by clients ... ii b. i, ii, iii c. i, ii, iii, iv d. ii, iii, iv

Answer : c. i, ii, iii, iv

Description : Proxy application gateway (i) acts on behalf of all intranet users wanting to access interne securely (ii)monitors all accesses to internet and allows access to only specified IP addresses (iii) disallows use of certain protocols with ... ii b. i, ii, iii c. i, ii, iii, iv d. ii, iii, iv

Answer : b. i, ii, iii

Description : Compare third party insurance and comprehensive on following parameters: i. Risk cover ii. Premium iii. Application of vehicle iv. Condition

Answer : i. Risk cover  In third party insurance only covers damage from a accident only to the other people and their property if you are fault.  In case of comprehensive insurance the damage ... injuries and damage to property does not cover.  In comprehensive insurance personal injuries are covered.

Description : What can you say about the following statements? I. XML tags are case-insensitive. II. In JavaScript, identifier names are case-sensitive. III. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) cannot be used with XML. IV. All well-formed ... IV are false. (3) only I and III are false. (4) only II and IV are false.

Description : Compare AC & DC track circuits on i) Length of circuit ii) Application iii) Effect of stray currents. iv) Maintenance

Answer : Ans: i) Length of circuit - a) AC track circuit is having long length upto 3 to 5 km b) DC track circuit is having short length  ii)Application -a) AC track circuit is used ... ) Maintenance - a) AC track circuit has easier and cheaper maintenance b) DC track circuit has complicated maintenance

Description : Which of the following statements say the same thing ? (i) I am a teacher (said by Arvind) (ii) I am a teacher (said by Binod) (iii) My son is a teacher (said by Binod's father) (iv) My brother is a teacher (said ... (ii) (B) (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) (C) (ii) and (vi) (D) (v) and (vi)

Answer : (B) (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v)

Description : Define the terms: (i) Lamp efficiency (ii) Luminous flux (iii) Luminaire (iv) Colour Rendering Index.

Answer : i) Lamp efficiency or luminous efficiency: It is the ratio of luminous flux emitted by a lamp to the power consumed by the lamp. It is a reflection of efficiency of energy conservation ... of surfaces illuminated by a given source compare to those of the same surface under reference illuminant.

Description : Compare between FM and PM

Answer : PARAMETERS FM PM 1. Variable parameter of carrier. Frequency Phase 2. Variable parameter proportional to modulating voltage.  Frequency deviation Phase deviation.  3. Amplitude ... for transmitted power More Moderate 6. Signal to noise ratio Best Better

Description : Compare sky wave and space wave propagation w.r.t. following points. (i) Frequency range (ii) Effect of fading (iii)Polarization (iv)Application

Answer : Sr. No  Parameters Sky Wave Propagation Space Wave Propagation 1 Frequency range 3 MHz to 30 MHz  Above 30 MHz 2 Effect of fading Problem of fading is ... horizontally Polarized 4 Application RadioBroadcasting (SW Range) Used for TV and FM broadcasting

Description : Write one application for the give dielectric material. (i) Polyvinyl Carbide(PVC) (ii) Glass (iii) Mica (iv) Cotton and Silk

Answer : (i) Polyvinyl Carbide(PVC):it is used in insulation of wires and cables in domestic wiring as well as in aircraft and factory wiring (any one)  (ii) Glass: 1) Alkaline glasses are used for ... with wax or varnishes are used in windings of magnet coils and small medium sized mechanics (any one)

Description : A refrigerator is working on reversed carnot cycle between temperature of 30°C to –10°C with capacity of 10 tonnes. Calculate. (i) The COP (ii) Define ton of refrigeration (iii) Give the industrial application of refrigeration

Answer : (ii) Ton of refrigeration: It is defined as the quantity of heat required to be removed from 1Ton water at 0oC to get ice at 0oC in one day. (iii) Industrial applications of refrigeration ... food stuff such as meat, fruit, fruit juice, vegetables etc. 5. Ice cooling of concrete for dam.

Description : In B2B e-Commerce (i) Co-operating Business should give an EDI standard to be used (ii) Programs must be developed to translate EDI forms to a form accepted by application program (iii) Method of transmitting/receiving data should be ... . i, ii b. i, ii, iii c. i, ii, iii, iv d. ii, iii, iv

Answer : b. i, ii, iii

Description : Write any one application for each of following material handling equipments: (i) Bucket Conveyors (ii) Fork Lift Trucks (iii) Jib Crane (iv) Gravity Chutes

Answer : Applications of MH Equipments:

Description : Give one application each of following transducer: (i) LVDT (ii) RVDT (iii) Capacitive (iv) Piezoelectric

Answer : i) LVDT ➢ LVDT used to measure force ➢ LVDT used to measure strain ➢ LVDT used to measure weight ➢ LVDT used to measure tension ➢ LVDT used to measure pressure ➢ The ... flow meters, non-destructive test (NDT) equipment's ➢ Piezoelectric materials are used in ultrasonic transducers.

Description : Give one application of :(i) Mineral oil (ii) Varnish (iii) Synthetic oil (iv) Vegetable oil

Answer : i) Application of Mineral oil:  1. Used in transformer. 2. Used in switchgear 3. Used for circuit breaker 4. Used for capacitor 5. Used in paper insulated cables 6. It is used in Rector ii) ... Vegetable oil:  1. Used as a lubricant. 2. For illumination effect 3. Used for eating purpose.

Description : State any one application of each tool : (i) Earth tester (ii) Megger (iii) Bearing puller (iv) Growler

Answer : i) Earth Tester :- It is used to measure earth resistance.  ii) Megger :- Megger is used to find out (measure) insulation resistance of electrical machine/equipment.  iii) ... is an electrical device used to find out shorted turn faults in armature winding and stator winding of motor.

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