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In relation to embedded Linux how TCP/IP networking is done? Explain network configuration.
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Description :

What is meant by embedded Linux?

Answer :

Linux is the operating system if we use this operating system in embedded system devices then it is known as embedded Linux. Linux is open source and free.

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Description :

List and explain the various functions supported by Linux/RTLinux.

Answer :

Various functions of RTLinux is as follows: Interrupt handling functions

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Description :

Explain the services provided by transport layer in TCP/IP model.

Answer :

Responsibility of process to process delivery of message Ensure that whole message arrives in order. 1. Service point addressing: -several programs run at a time on computer. Delivery is ... transport layer without error(damage or loss or duplication). Error correction is done by retransmission.

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Description :

Draw O/P characteristics of CB configuration and explain its working.

Answer :

In common base configuration, emitter is the input terminal, collector is the output terminal and base terminal is connected as a common terminal for both input and output. The base-emitter ... In this region, a small collector current flows called leakage current when emitter current is zero.

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Description :

Explain MOSFET gate drive circuit and totem pole configuration.

Answer :

MOSFET gate drive circuit: The turning on and turning off of MOSFET can be controlled from gate to source voltage signal. If the gate to source voltage of MOSFET exceeds threshold ... this configuration, the two switches (transistors) are used in totem pole arrangement with a comparator.

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Description :

What are the advantages of using Linux?

Answer :

Advantages of Linux are as follows :Linux is open source and free.Linux Is multiuser and multitasking operating system.Linux is the stable operating system.Linux is reliable.Linux can be modify according to requirements.Linux is the secure operating system.

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Description :

Linux Kernel Architecture

Answer :

Linux Kernel Architecture: The kernel is a layer between Linux OS and hardware. When Linux is running in main memory it is divided into two parts one is user space and second is kernel space. 1.User Space 2.Kernel Space

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Description :

Draw the block diagram of an embedded system and describe the hardware units of an embedded system.

Answer :

OR Explanation: The embedded system consist of different components embedded into it as follows: 1) Embedded Processor 2) Power supply , reset and Oscillator circuits 3) System timers 4) ... to store data and program. Following are types of memories used in embedded system.

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Description :

Is an Arduino an embedded system?

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Description :

Give the name of protocols used by different layers of TCP/IP. Discuss the function of ARP and RARP.

Answer :

TCP/IP Model contains following layer. 1) Host-to-Network Layer - It defines characteristics of transmission media. It also concern with delivery of data when two systems are attached to same network ... such broadcasts are not forwarded by routers, so a RARP server is needed on each network. 

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Description :

Draw full bridge & half bridge configuration with common cathode.

Answer :

Half Bridge Configuration: Full Bridge Configuration: 

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Description :

Sketch output characteristics of CE configuration. Show all the regions.

Answer :

Sketch output characteristics of CE configuration. Show all the regions.

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Description :

Compare between CB , CE & CC transistor configuration.

Answer :

Parameter CB CE CC I/P impedance Low Or 50Ω Medium Or 600Ωto 4kΩ High Or 1 MΩ Current Gain Less than or equal to 1 High Highest Voltage Gain Medium Medium Less ... k Ω to 50 k Ω Low Or 50 Ω Phase shift between input and output 0° 360° 0° 

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Description :

Why common emitter configuration is commonly used?

Answer :

Common emitter configuration is commonly used for amplifications because 1. The common emitter configuration (CE) provides maximum voltage and current gain and hence provides maximum power gain. The ... automatic impedance matching maximum power transfer will take place from one stage to other.

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Description :

Which configuration has the lowest current gain ?

Answer :

Common base configuration has the lowest current gain.

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Description :

The technology that is used to establish wireless networking is (1) TCP/IP (2) J2ME (3) MATLAB (4) Bluetooth

Answer :

Bluetooth

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Description :

In TCP/IP Reference model, the job of ............... layer is to permit hosts to inject packets into any network and travel them independently to the destination. (A) Physical (B) Transport (C) Application (D) Host-to-network

Answer :

Answer: Marks to all

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Description :

Write procedure to configure TCP/IP settings in a network.

Answer :

Linux includes a network configuration tool that enables you to configure various network interfaces on your system for TCP/IP networking. You can run the network configuration tool to add a new network interface or ... , you may use IP addresses in the range 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255

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Description :

A packet whose destination is outside the local TCP/IP network segment is sent to .............. (1) File server (2) DNS server (3) DHCP server (4) Default gateway

Answer :

Answer: 4 

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Description :

How many bits Internet address is assigned to each host on a TCP/IP Internet which is used in all communications with host?  A) 16 bits B) 32 bits C) 48 bits D) 64 bits

Answer :

How many bits Internet address is assigned to each host on a TCP/IP Internet which is used in all communications with host?  32 bits

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Description :

List different classes of IP Address.

Answer :

Different classes of IP address. Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E

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Description :

Answer :

Various features of Linux that are used in embedded systems are as follows : Linux is multiuser operating system. Linux is open source and free. Linux can be ... Linux supports handling of errors. Real-time Linux supports the group scheduling functions.

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Description :

Compare peer to peer network and server based networks.

Answer :

Peer to Peer Network Server Based Network It is a decentralized management It is centralized management It is easy to set up & no administrator required It is complex to set ... client has less power. Uses less expensive computer hardware. It is hardware intensive.

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Description :

Compare Server based network and peer-to-peer network.

Answer :

Compare Server based network & Peer to Peer network Server based network Peer to Peer 1. It is much like company uses centralized management. 1. It is much like company uses ... 7.It support small Network 8.Better performance 8.Might hurt user's performance

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Description :

 The number of loop equations required to completely analysing a network comprising of 8 independent branches and 6 nodes including the reference node shall be A) 3 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 

Answer :

 The number of loop equations required to completely analysing a network comprising of 8 independent branches and 6 nodes including the reference node shall be 3 

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Description :

A network is said to be under resonance when the voltage and the current at the network input terminals are (A) in phase (B) out of phase (C) in phase quadrature (D) in phase, and have equal magnitudes

Answer :

A network is said to be under resonance when the voltage and the current at the network input terminals are in phase

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Description :

Norton’s theorem states that a complex network connected to a load can be replaced with an equivalent impedance (A) in series with a current source (B) in parallel with a voltage source (C) in series with a voltage source (D) in parallel with a current source

Answer :

in parallel qith current source

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Description :

A Two-Port Network is said to be symmetrical when the following equalities hold good (A) Z11 = Z22 and Z12 = Z21 (B) Z11 = Z22 (C) Y12 = Y21 (D) Y11 = Y22 and Y12 = Y21

Answer :

A Two-Port Network is said to be symmetrical when the following equalities hold good Z11 = Z22

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Description :

Answer :

A.C. network analyser is used to solve problems of load flow, short-circuit and stability.

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Description :

State the situations under which gateways are necessary in the network.

Answer :

Gateway operates at all 7 layers of the OSI model. It is a device, which connects two different dissimilar n/w which have same function of communication. Situation where gateways are necessary ... case of different frame sizes, data rates, format, acknowledgement schemes, and priority schemes tec.

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Description :

Enlist the components of computer network. Describe any one in brief.

Answer :

The components of computer network are: Hub Router Modem Bridge Switches Network Interface Card Cables and connectors Crimping tool LAN tester Explanation ... into analog format so that it can be transferred by using currently available infrastructure. 

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Description :

 Write in brief any two roles of network control devices in computer network.

Answer :

Two roles of network control devices in computer: Role of repeater: Generates the original signal. Operates in the physical layer. Role of Bridges: Bridges utilize the address ... Role of Gateways: Gateways provide translation services between incompatible networks and works in all layers.

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Answer :

Solution: To find Norton’s equivalent resistance removing voltage source and current source. Voltage source is replaced by short circuit and current source is replaced by open circuit so, we get circuit as

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Description :

Generally in a power system network, the load is represented as a :  (A) Constant power in both load flow study and in stability study  (B) Constant power in load flow study and constant impedance in stability study  (C) Constant power in stability study and constant impedance in load flow study  (D) Constant impedance in both load flow study and in stability study

Answer :

Generally in a power system network, the load is represented as a : Constant power in load flow study and constant impedance in stability study 

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Description :

A network consists of several inductances connected in parallel. The equivalent inductance of the network is given by (A) the sum of the individual inductances. (B) the reciprocal of the sum of the individual inductances. (C) the sum of the reciprocals of individual inductances. (D) the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals of individual inductances.

Answer :

A network consists of several inductances connected in parallel. The equivalent inductance of the network is given by the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals of individual inductances.

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Description :

Name the different TCP/IP Protocols. Explain the working of FTP.

Answer :

TCP/IP Protocols: 1. DNS (Domain Naming System) 2. HTTP(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) 3. Telnet 4. FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 5. TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), 6. SNMP (Simple ... TCP ports: port 21 is used for the control connection and port 20 is used for the data connection.

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Description :

State features of any one network control devices. 

Answer :

A hardware device that are used to connect computers, printers, fax machine and other electronic devices to a network are called network devices. These devices transfer data in a fast, ... transforms incoming analog signals into their digital equivalents. A two way communication is established.

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Description :

Discuss any four network features.

Answer :

1) File sharing: File sharing is the primary feature of network. Due to use of networks, the sharing of files becomes easier. File sharing requires a shared directory or disk drive to which ... has internet services such as FTP servers or Usenet servers. 7) Network security: Internal & External

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Description :

Give any four selection criteria for selecting network topology.

Answer :

Selection criteria for selecting network topology. 1. Size of the network & number of devices or nodes being connected. 2. Ease of configuration & installing. 3. The ease of adding new device in an ... hubs etc. 7. Costs involved. 8. Need of security. 9. Need of network administration. 

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Description :

A linear network has a current input 4cos(ω t + 20º)A and a voltage output 10 cos(ωt +110º) V. Determine the associated impedance.

Answer :

Solution

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Description :

(i) Bilateral Network (ii) Node (iii) Loop (iv) Branch

Answer :

(i) Bilateral Network: If the characteristic of network (response or behavior) is independent of the direction of current through its elements in it, then the network is called as a bilateral network e. ... A part of an electric network which lies between two junctions or nodes is known as branch. 

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Description :

Answer :

Any electric network may be defined as a combination of a number of electric elements.

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Description :

What is active and passive network?

Answer :

Active network is a network which contain one or more than one EMF source. An active network consists of an active element like battery or transistor. Passive network is a ... contain any source of energy. Passive network consists of passive element like resistance, inductance and capacitance.

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Description :

What do you mean by bilateral network and unilateral network?

Answer :

Bilateral Network: An element whose response is independent of direction of current flowing through it is called Bilateral element and the network, which contains only bilateral elements, is called ... response depends on the direction of current flowing through it, is called unilateral network.

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Description :

The number of independent loops for a network with n nodes and b branches is

Answer :

The number of independent loops for a network with n nodes and b branches is b-n+1

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Description :

A network contains linear resistors and ideal voltage sources. If values of all the resistors are doubled then the voltage across each resistor will

Answer :

A network contains linear resistors and ideal voltage sources. If values of all the resistors are doubled then the voltage across each resistor will not change

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Description :

A network that consists of at least a voltage source or current source is called A) Active network B) Ideal network C) Sourced network D) Outsourced network

Answer :

A network that consists of at least a voltage source or current source is called Active network

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Description :

The power flow problem mathematical model for a linear transmission network (A) is non-linear (B) is linear (C) considers time variation of generation (D) does not consider tap-changing transformers

Answer :

The power flow problem mathematical model for a linear transmission network is non-linear

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Description :

Which of the following are known as the short circuit parameters of a 2- port network? (A) Z- parameters. (B) H- parameters. (C) Y- parameters. (D) A,B,C,D, parameters.

Answer :

Which of the following are known as the short circuit parameters of a 2- port network? (A) Z- parameters. (B) H- parameters. (C) Y- parameters. (D) A,B,C,D, parameters.

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Description :

A passive network

Answer :

A passive network has no emf source.

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