Explain arbitration. What is priority arbitrator?

1 Answer

Arbitration:

IF multiple peripherals are connected to microprocessor or DMA controller or any resource and they request services simultaneously so which peripheral will get serviced first this is termed as arbitration.


Priority Arbiter:

Priority arbiter is the arbitration method which uses single purpose processor. Priority arbiter uses two common schemes one is fixed priority and second is rotating or round-robin priority arbitration. Peripherals make requests to arbiter and arbiter makes requests to the resource.

image

Like 0 like Dislike 0 dislike

Related questions

Description : Daisy Chain Arbitration

Answer : Daisy chain arbitration: Multiple devices are connected to the bus.So, The process of arbitrating between requests for bus control is called bus arbitration. Arbitration schemes must be fast. ... cascade then propagation delay increases this is the one disadvantage of this arbitration.

Description : What is design technology? Explain top down design process.

Answer : Design technology: Design technology is the manner in which we convert our concept desired system into an implementation. The three main design technologies are 1. Compilation/Synthesis ... general purpose processors and A Gate-level Netlist for special-purpose processors.

Description : What is watchdog timer ? Explain the implementation of time out for ATM with block diagram and program.

Answer : A special type of timer is a watchdog timer, which will reset the system after a predefined timeout. Watchdog timer reset timer every X time unit, else timer generates a signal ... be loaded into timereg. This is to prevent erroneous software from unintentionally resetting the watchdog timer.

Description : The three outputs x1x2x3 from the 8x3 priority encoder are used to provide a vector address of the form 101x1x2x300. What is the second highest priority vector address in hexadecimal if the vector addresses are starting from the one with the highest priority? (A) BC (B) A4 (C) BD (D) AC

Answer : Answer: B

Description : What are the company's highest-priority goals this year, and how would my role contribute?

Description : Explain placement, routing, and sizing.

Answer : Placement: The task of placing and orienting every transistor somewhere on IC. Routing: The task of running wires between the transistors without inserting other wires or transistors. ... wires and transistor provide better performance but consume more power and require more silicon area.

Answer : Common computation models: Sequential program model Statements, rules for composing statements, semantics for executing them Communicating process model ... Object-oriented model For breaking complex software into simpler, well-defined pieces

Description : Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using memory I/O and standard I/O.

Answer : Memory mapped I/O and standard I/O are the two methods for communicating microprocessor with peripherals. Processor talks to both memory and peripheral using the same bus.Two ways to talk to a peripheral. ... of standard I/O is no loss of memory addresses to the use as I/O addresses.

Description : Explain parallel and wireless protocols.

Answer : Parallel protocols: PCI bus (Peripheral Components Interconnect): PCI stands for Peripheral Components Interconnect. PCI bus is used as a communication line to transmit signals and data ... provide the basis for wireless network products using the Wi-Fi brand.

Description : Explain memory hierarchy.

Answer : Memory hierarchy: Main memory is large, inexpensive, slow memory stores entire program and data. Cache memory is small, expensive, fast memory stores copy of likely accessed parts of large ... In memory hierarchy the smaller memory is faster and larger memory storage is slower.

Description : Explain memory write ability and storage permanence with suitable diagram.

Answer : Write ability and storage permanence of memories: Write ability is the manner and speed at which memory can be written. Storage permanence is the ability of memory to hold stored bits ... Holds bits after power is no longer supplied. High end and middle range of storage permanence.

Description : Explain the various steps involved in designing a custom single-purpose processor.

Answer : A single purpose processor is a digital circuit designed to execute exactly one program. It is also known as co-processor, accelerator or peripheral. It contains only ... for small quantities. Performance may not match general-purpose processors for same applications.

Description : Explain Inter-process Communication (IPC) using mailbox/queue.

Answer : Inter-process communication using mailbox: Mailbox is the Interprocess communication mechanism. A process puts a data message for another process in the mailbox. Mailbox is also called as message exchange. ... a message. In mailbox IPC the sender need not to know the name of the receiver.

Description : Explain FSM and concurrent process with example.

Answer : Finite State Machine (FSM): Finite state machine is a machine which have a transition from state to state. The system have some number of states and at a time the system can ... Y seconds. In sequential execution, the processor executes single task which causes poor processor utilization.

Description : Explain data transfer mechanism in I2C protocol. Compare it with CAN and USB protocol based on bit rate and area of applications.

Answer : I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit): I2C stands for Inter-Integrated Circuit. I2C is a serial protocol. It was developed by Philips Semiconductor. I2C bus have two communication lines. One is serial data ( ... Mbps this is used for lower speed devices. Using USB we can connect upto 127 devices.

Description : Explain Keypad controller.

Answer : Keypad Controller: It's a device which interfaces between the computer and keyboard. That is a input device and used for transfer the data to connected device.

Answer : UART takes parallel data and transmits serially and UART receives serial data and converts to parallel.A simple UART may possess1.Some configuration registers and2.Two independently operating processors, one ... must write data to the transmit register and/or read data from the received register.

Answer : A semaphore is called binary semaphore when its value is 0, it is assumed that it has been taken (or accepted) & when its value is 1, it is assumed that it has been released & no ... that are not themselves reentrant.3. A reentrant function may does not use the hardware in a nonatomic way.

Answer : Shared memory :For sharing of data faster and communication between programs, we use shared memory. Shared memory can be used with multiprocessors and single processors. Means Program ... No resource preemption4. Circular waitIf the four conditions occur simultaneously then the deadlock occurs.

Answer : The scheduler is very important in Real-Time Operating System (RTOS). Selection of tasks for execution is provided by the scheduler. Which task to execute when it is provided by the ... . Non-preemptive scheduling is simple.Preemptive scheduling is flexible while non-preemptive scheduling is rigid.

Answer : There are three different host/target architecture for embedded Linux.Linked setupRemovable storage setupStandalone setup1. Linked setup :In this host/target architecture, the host and ... cross-platform development environment.The target contains bootloader, kernel, and root filesystem.

Description : List and explain the various functions supported by Linux/RTLinux.

Answer : Various functions of RTLinux is as follows: Interrupt handling functions

Answer : Various features of Linux that are used in embedded systems are as follows : Linux is multiuser operating system. Linux is open source and free. Linux can be ... Linux supports handling of errors. Real-time Linux supports the group scheduling functions.

Description : a) Time to market b) The performance

Answer : a) Time to market :Time to market is the time from development of an embedded system to sell it to customers is called time to market. For more profit, the time to market should be ... losses due to delayed entry.b) Performance :Latency and throughput are the two main measures of performance.

Description : The U.S. EPA recently concluded that environmental tobacco smoke should be considered (quote) w) "a possible human teratogen" x) "a priority air pollutant" y) "a known human carcinogen" z) "a possible human carcinogen" 

Answer : ANSWER: Y -- A KNOWN HUMAN CARCINOGEN 

Description : suppose you are asked by your friends to take the membership of the teachers association. How could you take decision in this situation? Options: A) You will give priority to social relations, therefore, ... the colleagues instead of entity with the management. D) You will try to avoid the issue. 

Answer : D) You will try to avoid the issue. 

Description : A good teacher’s priority in his school shall be his Options: A) Principal B) Secretary of the Managing Committee C) Colleagues D) Students

Answer : D) Students

Description : You are being pressurized by your colleagues to take the membership of the teacher's union. How could you take decision in this situation? Options: A) You will give priority to social relations, ... enmity with the management D) You will try best to go against their will by hook or crook

Answer : B) You will have faith in unity so you accept the membership 

Description : Now-a-day the Government has given priority to social welfare schemes, therefore, it has launched various schemes like Age-old Pension scheme, Widow Pension scheme etc. Your personal opinion towards all these ... social sympathy D) These people live a dignified life like others along with 'A'

Answer : D) These people live a dignified life like others along with 'A' 

Description : A common test in research demands much priority on (A) Reliability (B) Useability (C) Objectivity (D) All of the above

Answer : (D) All of the above

Description : Consider the following statements for priority queue: S1: It is a data structure in which the intrinsic ordering of the elements does determine the result of its basic operations. S2: The elements of a priority queue ... . (C) SI is incorrect and S2 is correct. (D) Both S1 and S2 are correct.

Answer : (D) Both S1 and S2 are correct.

Description : Which of the following 8085 microprocessor hardware interrupt has the lowest priority? (A) RST 6.5 (B) RST 7.5 (C) TRAP (D) INTR 

Answer : Answer: D

Description : A scheduling Algorithm assigns priority proportional to the waiting time of a process. Every process starts with priority zero (lowest priority). The scheduler re-evaluates the process priority for every 'T' time ... (A) Priority scheduling (B) Round Robin Scheduling (C) Shortest Job First (D) FCFS

Answer : (B) Round Robin Scheduling

Description : Some of the criteria for calculation of priority of a process are: a. Processor utilization by an individual process. b. Weight assigned to a user or group of users. c. Processor utilization by a user or group of processes. In fair share ... (a) and (c) (3) (a), (b) and (c) (4) only (b) and (c)

Answer : (3) (a), (b) and (c)

Description : Which of the following scheduling algorithms may cause starvation? a. First-come-first-served b. Round Robin c. Priority d. Shortest process next e. Shortest remaining time first (1) a, c and e (2) c, d and e (3) b, d and e (4) b, c and d

Answer : Answer: 2

Description : In the order of priority of hardware interrupts of 8085A, 3rd priority (in descending order) is for  A) Trap B) INTR C) RST6.5 D) RST5.5

Description : What is Mailbox? Write a note on Mailbox.

Answer : Mailbox is used for inter-process communication for sending small messages between tasks or between ISR and task. The Mailbox is used in some Real Time Operating system (RTOS). If the task or ... received by which task or thread is called mailbox client. Mailbox message is a kernel service.

Answer : Interrupt latency is the amount is the amount of time it takes a system to respond to an interrupt.The 4 factors influencing on embedded system response to an interrupt are:1. The longest period of time ... 2 is one of the reasons that it is generally a good idea to write short interrupt routines.

Description : What are counting semaphores and resource semaphore?

Answer : If a task tries to take the semaphore when the integer is equal to zero, then the task will block. These semaphores are called counting semaphore. Some system offer semaphore that can be ... , but they cannot be used to communicate between two tasks. Such semaphores are called resource semaphore.

Answer : notes.txt (18 kb) I added extra knowledge in this file.I also attach my programs. If any doubts ask me. If any doubt on socket please let me know. I know little bit English knowledge. If any spell mistake and grammar error sorry sorry.

Answer : Some embedded systems have Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS) and some of them not. Real-Time Operating Systems is a platform for building applications for embedded systems, Smaller Software ... they just have application code without RTOS. Every Real-Time Operating Systems have the kernel.

Answer : There are two main types of task scheduling algorithm in Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS).1. Rate Monotonic Scheduling (RMS)2. Earliest-Deadline-First (EDF)Rate Monotonic Scheduling ( ... shortest period process and so on.Rate Monotonic Scheduing do not support non-periodic processees.

Description : what are different three main IC Technologies? discuss the advantages of each of them.

Answer : The three different IC technologies are 1.Full custom VLSI2.Semi-custom ASIC3.Programmable Logic Devices (PLD)The advantages of each of them are as follows :1. Full custom VLSIAll ... Logic devices are available instantly.In PLD there is not customised logic cell or mask layer.

Description : What are the advantages of using Linux?

Answer : Advantages of Linux are as follows :Linux is open source and free.Linux Is multiuser and multitasking operating system.Linux is the stable operating system.Linux is reliable.Linux can be modify according to requirements.Linux is the secure operating system.

Description : What is a hard real time system?

Answer : If the real-time systems have minimum interrupt latency and task deadline with prescribe time limits then it is known as hard real-time systems.  If these two requirements meet in real time systems but not always then it is known as soft real-time systems.

Description : What is meant by embedded Linux?

Answer : Linux is the operating system if we use this operating system in embedded system devices then it is known as embedded Linux. Linux is open source and free.

Description : What is the real time scheduling?

Answer : Hard real-time and soft real-time are the types of real time scheduling. Real time 

Description : What is a single purpose processor?

Answer : Single Purpose Processor Single purpose processor is design to execute only one program. It perform particular computation task. So it have faster ... of single purpose processor. The datapath contains only required components.

← Prev Question Next Question →
Ask a Question
Choose topic