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What is the convolution filter?

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Description : What do you mean by linear convolution?

Description : What is convolution in signals and systems?

Description : Is a convolution linear?

Description : What do you mean by active filter? State its advantages over passive filter . Define pass band & stop band with respect to filter.

Answer : Active Filter: Active Filter is formed by using active element along with the passive components.  Advantages of Active filter over Passive filter: High value of pass band gain can be obtained. It is ... pass band.  Stop Band Filter: The frequency range which is attenuated is known as stop band.

Description : What is the function of an electrical filter ?

Answer : Filter separates different components that are mixed together. Electrical filter can separate different frequency components. Electrical filters are the electrical circuits which are use to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal.

Description : What is the harmonic filter?

Answer : It is being used to supress the input voltage distortion at input side of any electrical equipment. This distortion is created by other electrical loads like motor, drives etc nearby connected with ... for a range of harmonics or specific harmonics like 3rd harmonics  5th harmonics, 7th harmonics. 

Description : need of rectifier and filter. 

Answer : Need of rectifier: Every electronics circuit needs a D.C. power source for its operation. The rectifier circuit is used to convert A.C. supply to unidirectional pulses .  Need of filter: A filter ... only the D.C. components to reach the load. So filter is used to provide ripple free output.

Description : State any four advantages of LC filter.

Answer : 1. The choke input (LC) filter has a high output D.C voltage. 2. It has no loading effect on the rectifier and power transformer.  3. The diode does not have to carry surge currents.  ... effect on the rectifier and power transformer.  7. It has better voltage regulation than that of π filter.

Description : Compare RC and LC filter.

Answer : RC filters  LC filters The RC filter is only useful for small load currents. The LC filters are useful for heavy load currents. More power dissipated in RC filter. Less power ... RC is fine for filtering low power signals. LC is fine for filtering high power signals.

Description : Explain design constraint of filter inductor design.

Description : Which capacitors are suitable for DC filter circuits?

Answer : Electrolytic capacitors are suitable for DC filter circuits.

Description : write short notes on Low-pass filter.

Answer : low-pass filter (1) filter exhibiting frequency selective characteristic that allows low-frequency components of an input signal to pass from filter input to output unattenuated all high-frequency components are ... the bandwidth of the filter. A filter whose impulse response is a low-pass signal.

Description : Convolution of exp (-at) and exp(-bt) is  A) exp(-(a+b)t) B) exp(-abt) C) exp(-bt)-exp(at) D) None of these

Description : I want to build circuit that produce sweep frequency from 10KHz - 11KHz - 12....... - 20KHz (as maximum) then start again at 10KHz - 11KHz - 12....... - 20KHz looping like this (2-3 seconds per loop) until the power turned off.

Description : What is stable and unstable system?

Description : What is the impulse response of the system?

Description : What is a time variant system?

Description : What is the meaning of LTI system?

Answer : The system which satisfies both linearity and time invarient is called linear time invarient (LTI) systrm

Description : What do you mean by signal processing?

Description : What is a signal in science?

Description : What do you mean by signal and system?

Description : What are filter aid. What should be qualities of filter aid?

Answer : Filter Aid: These are the substance which reduces the resistance of filtrate to flow. Ideal qualities of filter aid:  i. It should be remain suspended in the liquid. ii. It should be free ... suitable for retention of solid. v. It should have structure that permits formation of porous cake. 

Description : What is the significance of signal conditioner? Explain the need of following in mechatronics system. i) Isolator ii) Filter iii) Amplifier iv) Data converter

Answer : Significance: Signal conditioning means manipulating an analog signal in such a way that it meets the requirements of the next stage for further processing. Signal inputs accepted by signal ... -frequency converters, current-to-voltage converters, current loop converters, and charge converters.  

Description : Explain the operation of a full wave bridge rectifier with π filter using a neat diagram. Draw input and output waveforms.

Answer : During positive half-cycle of input, the secondary voltage VAB is positive, so diodes D1 and D2 forward biased and D3 and D4 reverse biased. The load current flows from terminal A ... smooth DC voltage appears across the load. The input and output waveforms are shown in the figure.

Description : Define filter and state it’s types.

Answer : A filter circuit may be defined as a circuit, which removes (or minimizes)the unwanted a.c. component of the rectifier output and allows only the d.c. component to reach the load. Types of filters 1) ... 2) Choke input filter(series inductor filter) 3) LC filter 4) π Filter 5) RC filter

Description : Draw and explain: bridge rectifier with shunt capacitor filter.

Answer : Operation of bridge rectifier with capacitor filter is explained in different intervals with the help of the following wave form. Operation in interval at 0 to A: ... filter is very close to theideal dc voltage waveform as most of the ripple is removed from rectified output.

Description : Draw a well labelled diagram of filter candle. Give its working and disadvantages.

Answer : Diagram : Working  : The filter candle is placed in a vessel containing the liquid to be filtered. When vacuum is applied, the pressure inside the candle is decreased. Due to ... Disadvantages   1. Chance of clogging/blocking. 2. Traces of material may come in the solution.

Description : Write the working of filter press with well labelled diagram.

Answer : Working:  1. The slurry is pumped in under positive pressure up to 20 bar and fill each frame. 2. The filtrate passes through the cloths on opposite sides of the frame and runs down between the ... 6. Thickness of cake can be varied by using frame of different thickness. Diagram: 

Description : Define ‘slurry’ and ‘filter cake’.

Answer : i) Slurry: Mixture of insoluble substances suspended in a liquid and intended to filter before use.   ii) Filter cake: The solid which gets collected on the filter is called as filter cake.

Description : Define The term Clarification. Write the working of filter candle with neat diagram.

Answer : Clarification:-  When solids are present in a very small proportion i.e. not exceeding 1.0 % the process of its separation from liquid, is called clarification. Working :-   1) These are ... the candle & gets collected inside the candle from where it is removed. Diagram :

Description : List qualities of an ideal filter aid and state any two example of it.

Answer : Ideal qualities of filter aid:  i. It should be remain suspended in the liquid. ii. It should be free from impurities. iii. It should be inert. iv. It should have a particle size distribution suitable ... i. Asbestos. ii. Cellulose. iii. Carbon. iv. Diatomaceous earth (silica). v. Perlite.

Description : Enlist the different filter medium used for filtration.

Answer : i) Filter paper. ii) Cotton wool. iii) Glass wool. iv) Asbestos. v) Fine muslin. vii)FilterMembranefilter. viii)Sintered glass filter. 

Description : Write short note  i. Filter aid. ii. Ayurvedic dosage form.

Answer : Filter aid Definition:   These are the substance which reduces the resistance of filtrate to flow. Objective: prevent the blocking of filter medium by forming open porous cake. It is used mainly ... milk and 32 parts of water till the milk alone remains. The decoction is then strained.

Description : Explain construction and working of filter candle.

Answer : Construction: These are cylindrical candles with an opening, The opening is connected to vacuum pump for reducing pressure under it, durin filtration process. The candles are made up of ... thick wall of the candle & gets collected inside the candle from where it is removed. 

Description : Differentiate between filtration and clarification. Enlist various filter media used in Pharmacy.

Answer : Sr. no. Filtration Clarification 1 It is process of removal of solids or suspended matter in a liquid or gas by passing through a porous medium in which solids are retained. ... wool iv) Asbestos v) Fine muslin vi) Filter cloth vii) Membrane filters viii) Sintered glass filters.

Description : Name the commonly used filter aids.

Answer : Commonly used filter aids are as follows: 1) Cellulose 2) Asbestos 3) Carbon 4) Diatomaceous earth 5) Perlite

Description : Write the qualities of an ideal filter aids. Give examples of filter aid.

Answer : Ideal qualities of filter aid: i. It should be remain suspended in the liquid. ii. It should be free from impurities. iii. It should be inert. iv. It should have a particle size distribution ... ii. Cellulose. iii. Carbon. iv. Diatomaceous earth (silica). v.Perlite. vi.Activated Charcoal

Description : Explain the construction and working of ‘Meta Filter’.

Answer : Construction: i. It consists of grooved, drainage rod on which a number of metallic ring are packed. ii. The rings are usually of stainless steel and have 0.8 mm outer thickness, 15 mm inside ... pack of ring act as a base on which the fine filtration medium is supported Diagram: 

Description : Explain the construction and working of filter press.

Answer : Construction: It consists of alternative plate and frame mounted on two parallel support bars. The pressure can be applied through screw thread so that the plate and frame are rigidly fixed between ... Thickness of cake can be varied by using frame of different thickness. Diagram:

Description : Explain any four factors affecting filtration. Draw a well labelled diagram of leaf filter.

Answer : Factors which affect the rate of filtration are:   1. Pressure: The rate of filtration of liquid is directly proportional to the pressure difference between the filter medium and filter cake. Thus, the ... cake increases which decreases the rate of filtration.  Diagram of leaf filter :

Description : Enlist the ideal qualities of Filter aids.

Answer : Ideal qualities of filter aid:It should remain suspended in the liquid. 1. It should be free from impurities. 2. It should be inert. 3. It should have a particle size distribution suitable for retention of solid. 4. It should have structure that permits formation of porous cake.

Description : Explain working,construction of filter leaf with neat diagram. 

Answer : Construction of filter leaf   It consists of metal frame enclosing a wire screen or a grooved plate. The screen is covered by filter cloth which is fitted in frame, to grip the cloth. The frame ... . The cake can be washed by immersing in a vessel containing water or reverse flow of air

Description : Draw well labelled diagram of filter candle.

Answer : diagram of filter candle.

Description : Define filter. State its types. Draw any one filter with input and output waveform.

Answer : Defination : Filter is a circuit which remove or filtered out the AC component (ripple) Types of filter 1. Shunt Capacitor filter (C filter) 2. Series Inductor filter (L filter) 3. LC filter 4. filter (CLC filter) Shunt Capacitor filter (C filter) OR Waveforms:

Description : State the need for filter circuits in power supply.

Answer : Ripple must be kept away from the load and it should be removed from the rectified output. Therefore , there is a necessity of filter circuit for removing i.e. smoothing or filtering the ripple and allowing the (pure or steady) d.c. voltage to reach the load.

Description : List the function of air filter

Answer : function of air filter:  1. Filters are used to remove foreign particles like dirt, dust and grit or filters are used to remove dust and particles out of the air. 2. It may also ... the lubrication system. It is therefore customary to install air filter on the intake system of automobile engines. 

Description : The percentage increase in power consumption of a compressor with suction side air filter and with the pressure drop across the filter of 200 mmWc is ____ a) 1.0% b) 3% c) 2.4% d) 1.6% 

Answer : d) 1.6%

Description : Write the function of C and L in π filter and write two advantages of π filter over other filters.

Answer : The capacitors C1 and C2 provide a low reactance path for the ripple whereas the series inductor L provides a high reactance to the ac ripple. The combined effect of this is the reduction in ripple, and ... very low. 4. High dc voltage (approximately Vm) 5. Increase in the average load voltage. 

Description : Draw the circuit diagram of shunt capacitor filter along with full wave rectifier. Draw the waveform of full wave rectifier output and shunt capacitor filter output.

Answer : Fig: Shunt capacitor filter along with full wave rectifier Fig: Waveform of full wave rectifier output and shunt capacitor filter output.

Description : State the necessity of rectifier and filter circuits.

Answer : Need of Rectifiers: Many electronic devices and circuits work on DC. It is then needed to convert A.C. into D.C. Rectifier is the best and cheapest way to provide D.C. for electronic devices. ... moved from the pulsating D.C. to obtain pure D.C. signal. To remove this filter circuit is used. 

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