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Define polarization.

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Description : Define magnetic susceptibility.

Description : Define brazing.  

Answer : Brazing: It is a metal joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. 

Description : Define absolute pressure, atmospheric pressure.

Answer : Absolute Pressure : Absolute pressure is defined as actual total pressure including atmospheric pressure acting on a surface  Unit of absolute pressure is pounds per square inch absolute and it ... by the air surrounding to the earth. Unit of atmospheric pressure is Pounds per square inch.

Description : Define: 1) Electrode 2) Electrolyte

Answer : Electrode: An electrode is a small piece of metal or other substance that is used to take an electric current to or from the source of power.  Electrolyte: The substance which is ... electric current to pass through it, resulting in the chemical decomposition, is known as an electrolyte.  

Description : Define earthing. State its types.  

Answer : Definition of earthing: * Earthing means connecting the metal body of electrical device to the general mass of earth by a wire of negligible resistance. OR * Earthing means connecting the metal body of ... ii) Pipe type earthing iii) Rod type earthing iv) Strip earthing v)Water main earthing

Description : Define Feed and speed in shaping machine

Answer : 1) Feed: Feed (S) is the relative movement of the work or tool in a direction perpendicular to the axis of reciprocation of the ram per double stroke. It is expressed in mm per stroke. 2) Speed: ... speed is the speed at which the metal is removed by the cutting tool in a period of one minute.

Description : Define armature reaction in an alternator. Explain the effect of armature reaction at various P.F. of loads of alternator.

Answer : Armature Reaction: The effect of armature flux on main flux is called as armature reaction.  Armature Reaction at Various Power Factors: When armature is loaded, the armature flux modifies ... lagging p.f. For capacitive loads the effect of flux is partly distorting and partly strengthening.

Description : Define impedance diagram and reactance diagram.

Answer : Impedance diagram: Impedance diagram is the simplified equivalent circuits of single line or one line diagrams of power system in which all components are represented by their equivalent circuit.  ... machines are neglected and is used only for fault current calculation is called reactance diagram.

Description : Define leakage factor.

Answer : It is the ratio of total flux to leakage flux.

Description : Define Energy conservation. 

Answer : Energy conservation:  Reduction in the amount of energy consumed in a process or system, or by an organization or society, through economy, elimination of waste, and rational use is referred ... electrical power and to increase the efficiency of every machine and material by minimizing the losses.

Description : Define the terms incandescent and incandescent lamp.

Answer : Incandescent is the phenomenon in which the object emits or creates light when it is heated. An incandescent lamp is a lamp in which the filament is heated by electrical current & light is created.

Description : Define Enhance lighting.

Answer : Enhance lighting: Enhance lighting is the lighting with various colour effect and controlled light intensity, used for decoration and effective visualization of gold, silver, diamond and watches showroom purpose.

Description : Define PIV, TUF, ripple factor, efficiency of rectifier.

Answer : PIV: Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) is defined as the maximum negative voltage which appears across non-conducting reverse biased diode. TUF : Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) is defined as the ratio of DC output ... Efficiency of rectifier: η = DC output power/ AC input power = PLdc / Pac

Description : Define Analog Transducer and give examples of it

Answer : Analog Transducer: An analog transducer is a device that converts the input signal into a continuous DC signal of voltage or current. Examples: * Strain gauge * L.V.D.T * Thermocouple * Thermistor

Description : Define resistor and draw symbol of variable resistor.

Answer : Resistor: A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Symbol of variable resistor:   

Description : Define: i) Input Offset Voltage ii) Input offset Current iii) Input Bias Current iv) Output offset voltage

Answer : Definition of parameters of OPAMP is follows:  i) Input Offset Voltage: Input offset voltage is defined as the voltage that must be applied between the two input terminals of an OPAMP to null or ... to ground) and output voltage is obtained non zero such voltage is output offset voltage of opamp.

Description : Define Multivibrator. State the types of multivibrator. Which M/V can be used as a flip-flop? Draw the circuit diagram.

Answer : Definition:- A multivibrator is an electronic circuit that switches rapidly by means of positive feedback between two or more states.  OR  A multivibrator is an electronic circuit used to implement a ... Bistable Multivibrator: it can operate as a flip-flop, Circuit diagram 

Description : What do you mean by active filter? State its advantages over passive filter . Define pass band & stop band with respect to filter.

Answer : Active Filter: Active Filter is formed by using active element along with the passive components.  Advantages of Active filter over Passive filter: High value of pass band gain can be obtained. It is ... pass band.  Stop Band Filter: The frequency range which is attenuated is known as stop band.

Description : Define Sample and hold period with reference to S/H circuit.

Answer : Sample Period:- The time period during which the voltage across the capacitor is equal to the input voltage is called sample period. Hold Period:- The time period during which the voltage across the capacitor is constant is called hold period.

Description : Define Faraday’s first law of electromagnetic induction. 

Answer : Faraday’s First Law: Whenever a changing magnetic flux links with a conductor, an emf is induced in that conductor.  OR  When a conductor cuts across magnetic field, an emf is induced in that conductor.

Description : Define Dielectric Strength for transformer oil. State its value for new transformer oil.

Description : Define Resonance. 

Answer : When the frequency of the external periodic force applied to a body is exactly equal to ( matches) natural frequency of body, the body vibrates with maximum amplitude, the effect is known as resonance 

Description : Briefly define each of the following: (a) 1 coulomb (b) 1 volt (c) 1 ampere (d) 1 ohm.

Description : Define the term ion.

Description : Define the following terms and state their units: (i) Luminous intensity, (ii) Luminous flux

Answer : i) Luminous intensity: This is defined as the luminous flux emitted into a solid angle of space in a specific direction. Its unit is the candela.  OR  The luminous flux per unit solid angle ( ... energy radiated by the light source in all direction. The unit of luminous flux is lumen (lm) 

Description : Define the following: i) Residential load ii) Industrial load

Answer : i) Residential load: The electrical load which is used in residential installation is called as residential load. E.g. incandescent lamp, florescent tube, fan ,5A socket &15A socket etc.   ii ... 3-ph any type of motor, electric furnace ,oven,welding transformer and any power load etc. 

Description : Define Tender and state any three requirements of valid contract.

Answer : Meaning Tender:- Tender is offer or invitation of the work between any two parties. This offer may be written or non written. This offer is given by party no.1 (owner) to party no.2 ( ... . Contract should be signed by proper authorized persons. 6. It should be legally challenged in the court.

Description : Define contract and state its types.

Answer : Definition of Contract:- The agreement between two parties under some specific terms and conditions is known as contract.  Types of Engineering contract:- 1) Lump sum contract 2) Item rate contract 3) ... contract 11)Cost plus(+) fluctuating fees rate contract 12) Cost plus(+) fix fee contract 

Description : Define service connection and state types connection and state types of overhead service connection

Answer : Service Connection:- It is the input conductor or wire which is carried out from supply company (authorities) pole to consumers' main board or premises. Types of overhead service ...  1. Overhead service connection with Bare conductor 2. Overhead service connection with weather proof cable  

Description : Define Electrical Installation and give its classification.

Answer : Meaning of Electrical installation : Electrical installation is a process of estimation and erection of electrical wiring with materials, and electrical machines used by ... Residential Electrical Installation ii) Commercial Electrical Installation iii) Industrial Electrical Installation 

Description : Define laminar flow and turbulent flow.

Answer : Laminar flow : When a fluid flowing through the pipe at different speeds (fast at center and slow at edges), and the fluid particles move in layers with one layer sliding over the adjacent ... successive cross sections, then this flow is called as turbulent flow. Reynolds no is greater than 4000 

Description : Define transducer. Give two examples.

Answer : Transducer - It converts one form of signal into another form. A transducer is a device that is used to convert a physical quantity into its corresponding electrical signal.  Classification - 1. Active transducer 2. Passive transducer 

Description : Define natural, mechanical, forced and induced draught systems.

Answer : Natural draught system: - When the fuel is burnt (combustion) in the furnace due to natural circulation of air, the draught is called natural draught. Mechanical draught system: -  In a mechanical ... combustion. OR If fan/blower is placed after the furnace then it is called as induced draught

Description : Define the term solar constant.

Answer : Solar energy arrived atmosphere at a constant rate of 1350W/M²

Description : Define Q factor.

Answer : Quality Factor: The quality factor basically represents a figure of merit of a component (practical inductor or capacitor) or a complete circuit. It is a dimensionless number and defined as: ... between two branches of the circuit to the current taken by the parallel circuit from the source.

Description : Define balanced 3 phase load.

Answer : Balanced 3 phase Load: Balanced three phase load is defined as star or delta connection of three equal impedances having equal real parts and equal imaginary parts. It takes same current of equal magnitude and equal phase angle.

Description : Define admittance and state its unit.

Answer : Admittance is defined as the ability of the circuit to carry (admit) alternating current through it.  OR  It is the reciprocal of impedance Z. i.e Admittance Y = 1/Z.  Unit: Its unit is siemen (S) or mho (Ʊ).

Description : Define :- (i) Accuracy (ii) Resolution

Answer : i) Accuracy: It is the closeness of an instrument reading with the true value of the quantity under measurement.  OR  It is defined as the ability of an instrument to respond to a ... can be detected with certainty by an intrument.  OR  Resolution is the smallest measurable input change

Description : Define energy. Write unit of it.

Answer : Energy :-  Electrical energy is defined as the work done in moving electrical charge in electrical fields over specific time duration  OR  The total power delivered or consumed by consumer over specific time duration.  ... the power w.r.t. time  Unit :- Its Unit in watt sec., WHr., KWHr.

Description : Define accuracy and precision

Answer : 1) Accuracy: It is the closeness of an instrument reading with the true value of the quantity under measurement.  OR  It is defined as the ability of a instrument to respond to a true value ... is a measure of the degree of agreement within a group of a measurement of the same quantity. 

Description : Define junction field effect transistor (JFET) and give an example.

Answer : Junction Field-Effect Transistor: It is a semiconductor device having three terminals, namely Gate, Drain and Source, in which the current flow is controlled by an electric field set up by an external voltage applied ... : i) n-channel JFET and ii) p-channel JFET Examples of JFET: BFW 10, BFW 11 

Description : Define gain and bandwidth of an amplifier.

Answer : Bandwidth  The range of frequency over which the voltage gain is equal to or greater than 70.7% of its maximum value Gain: The ratio of output parameter (voltage/ current /power) to the input parameter (voltage/ current /power) of an amplifier is known as gain. It is denoted by a letter A

Description : Define negative and positive feedback

Answer : 1. Negative feedback: Feedback in which feedback signal is out of phase with input signal and it decreases output is called negative feedback.  2. Positive feedback: Feedback in which feedback signal is in phase with input signal and it increases output is called positive feedback. 

Description : Define biasing of transistor

Answer : Biasing of transistor is the process that makes the base emitter junction of transistor always forward biased and collector junction reverse biased for achieving the faithful amplification .

Description : Define load and line regulation.

Answer : 1. Load regulation : The load regulation indicates how much the load voltage changes when the load current changes. The load regulation is defined as:  % Load regulation = (VNL-VFL) / VFL *100  ... the power supply. A well-regulated power supply can have a line regulation of less than 0.1%.  

Description : Define pinch off voltage and drain resistance of FET.

Answer : 1 . Pinch-off Voltage: It is the value of the drain to source voltage VDS at which the drain current ID reaches its constant saturation value. Any further increase in VDS does not have any ... drain to source voltage to the change in drain current. It is also called AC/dynamic drain resistance.

Description : Define ripple factor and PIV of diode.

Answer : 1. Ripple factor: It is define as ratio of R.M.S. value of AC component to the DC component in the output.  2. PIV : It is maximum reverse voltage that diode can withstand without destroying junction.

Description : Define Depletion region and Barrier voltage of PN junction.

Answer : 1. Depletion region : The region consisting of immobile positive charge at n-side and immobile negative charge at p-side near the junction acts like a barrier and prevents the further flow of ... charge formed at the p-n junction is called barrier voltage, barrier potential or junction barrier.

Description : Define following : i. Radix ii. Bit iii. Nibble iv. Byte

Answer : i. Radix- the base to a given number system is called as radix.  ii. Bit- Single ‗1‘ or ‗0‘ is called as a bit.  iii. Nibble- a group of 4 bits is called as nibble  iv. Byte- a group of 8 bits is called as a byte.

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