Description : Why do we use VLSI?

**Answer** : VLSI is Very Large Scale Integration. VLSI is very useful for compact design. More functionalities in smaller size. VLSI IC have small power consumption as compared to discrete components circuit. VLSI can be use for different functions in compact size.

Description : What is the propagation delay of a logic gate?

**Answer** : The application input pulse and the occurrence of resulting output pulse is called propagation delay of logic gate.

**Answer** : Optical lithography method that uses light to print a pattern in a photosensitive material is also called photolithography.

**Answer** : VLSI is small and consume less power and its designing is easy.

Description : Design Y=AB.CD using CMOS logic.

**Answer** : Y=AB.CD using CMOS logic

Description : What is design technology? Explain top down design process.

**Answer** : Design technology: Design technology is the manner in which we convert our concept desired system into an implementation. The three main design technologies are 1. Compilation/Synthesis ... general purpose processors and A Gate-level Netlist for special-purpose processors.

Description : What is digital circuit design?

Description : What is electronic circuit design?

Description : What are the design constraints of transformer design?

**Answer** : Design constraints of transformer design: Core loss, flux density, copper loss and total power loss vs flux density these are the basic constraints in transformer design. Core loss: Flux density: Copper loss: Total power loss vs flux density:

Description : State design considerations for illumination scheme of commercial complex.

**Answer** : Design considerations for illumination scheme of commercial complex: * Tasks to be performed in the space * Desired light levels based on the tasks performed in the space * Room size ... conditions * Cleanliness of the area during operation * Maintenance schedule * Availability of daylight

Description : Sketch internal design of 4x3 ROM.

**Answer** : The internal design of 4x3 ROM

Description : Describe different RT level computational and sequential components used to design single function processors.

**Answer** : RT-level combinational components:- To reduce the complexity in digital logic, combinational components are used, which are more powerful than logic gates. Such combinational ... during a clock edge. An asynchronous inputs value effects the circuit independent of the clock.

Description : Explain design constraint of filter inductor design.

Description : Explain the single pass transformer design procedure step by step by giving its flowchart.

**Answer** : single pass transformer design procedure step by step by giving its flowchart:

Description : What is logic analyser?

**Answer** : Logic analyser is the extension of Oscilloscope. Logic analyser is used for troubleshooting digital circuits. Logic analyser can store digital data and it have 8 to 64 channels. Logic analyser are used for Hardware verification, fault analysis and automated testing.

Description : What is Defuzzification in fuzzy logic?

Description : What is the membership function in fuzzy logic?

Description : What is fuzzy logic algorithms?

Description : Define following terms related to logic families : (i) Noise Margin (ii) FAN-OUT (iii) Propagation delay (iv) Power dissipation

**Answer** : i) Noise immunity is measured in terms of noise margin. High state Noise margin = VNH = VOH(min) - VIH(min) Low state Noise margin = VNL = VIL(max) - VOL(max) i) The fan-out is defined as the ... logical 0 state (HIGH to LOW) iii) Average power dissipation is defined as PD(avg) = ICC(avg) * VCC

Description : block diagram of logic analyzer.

**Answer** : A logic analyzer can be triggered on a complicated sequence of digital events, then capture a large amount of digital data from the system under test (SUT).When logic analysers first came ... Once the data are captured, they can be displayed several ways, from the simple) to the complex

Description : application of logic analyzer.

**Answer** : Digital systems. Computer systems Logic circuits. Testing complex digital

Description : Compare combinational logic circuit and sequential logic circuit

**Answer** : Combinational logic Sequential logic The combinational logic circuit consists of logic gate only Sequential logic circuit consists of combinational logic circuit along with memory for storage of ... , multiplexer, demultiplexer etc E.g. counters, shift registers flip-flop etc

Description : Synchronous vs asynchronous logic

**Answer** : .embed-container { position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%; height: 0; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; } .embed-container iframe, .embed-container object, .embed-container embed { position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; }

Description : Logic Simplification Using Boolean Algebra

**Answer** : Logic Simplification Using Boolean Algebra 1 : https://youtu.be/fuoSMm2dJMc Logic Simplification Using Boolean Algebra 2 : https://youtu.be/bfCdur2QcJ4 Logic Simplification Using Boolean Algebra 3 : ... .be/V02wz8gz1UU Logic Simplification Using Boolean Algebra 7 : https://youtu.be/rgnJKgFO-SU

Description : Which of the following gates can be used to realize all possible combinational logic functions? (i) OR gate (ii) NOR gate (iii) Exclusive OR gate (iv) NAND gate (v) AND gate (A) (iii), (iv) and (v) (B) (i), (iii) and (iv) (C) (ii) and (iv) (D) (i) and (v)

**Answer** : Which of the following gates can be used to realize all possible combinational logic functions? (i) OR gate (ii) NOR gate (iii) Exclusive OR gate (iv) NAND gate (v) AND gate (A) (iii), (iv) and (v) (B) (i), (iii) and (iv) (C) (ii) and (iv) (D) (i) and (v)

**Answer** : Nanometer is a ametric measure of distance equivalent to one billionth of a meter.

Description : TTL logic family is most popularly used industries because it 1.provides greater operating speed 2.has a good fan in & fan out 3.has easy interface with other digital circuitry 4.all the above

**Answer** : It is a basically a bipolar circuit which has TTL band hate fan fan out

Description : _____ Model should reflect how results were obtained. A. Design model B. Logic model C. Computational model D. None of above

**Answer** : C. Computational model

Description : What are the advantages of CMOS over NMOS?

**Answer** : Advantages of CMOS technology over NMOS are as follows. Very low static power consumption Reduce the complexity of the circuit High density of logic functions on a chip Low static power consumption High noise immunity

Description : What do you mean by LSI?

**Answer** : large-scale integration (LSI) term usually used to describe the level of integration at which entire integrated circuits can be placed on a single chip. An integrated circuit made of hundreds to thousands of transistors.

Description : What do you mean by VHDL?

**Answer** : VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits. VHDL can also be used as a general purpose parallel programming language.

Description : explain skin effect in copper interconnects. what are the various ways of reducing this effect?

**Answer** : Skin effect generally observed in ac conductor in transmission network, in skin the current flowing through outer layer of conductor is more than iner area of conductor thus we can say the ... for reducing this effect we can use boundel conductor or used hollow conductor for power transmission

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