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Explain the sinusoidal harmonic reduction techniques for cylcoconverters.

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Description : To get minimum harmonic distortion in the output, a 3-Ф to 3-Ф cyclo-converter requires :  (A) 12 SCRs (B) 18 SCRs (C) 36 SCRs (D) 72 SCRs

Answer : To get minimum harmonic distortion in the output, a 3-Ф to 3-Ф cyclo-converter requires : 36 SCRs

Description : Explain the “mitigation of power theft” and “faulty meter replacement” for energy conservation techniques to reduce commercial losses. 

Answer : Energy conservation techniques to reduce commercial losses:  1. Mitigation of Power Theft: Power theft being the most important issue which all of the service providing utilities ... agricultural sector. Prepaid meters may prove effective measures against unauthorized abstraction of energy. 

Description : Explain any two energy conservation techniques in fan.

Answer : Following are energy conservation techniques in Fans : 1) Use the electronic regulators instead of conventional regulator: Function of regulator is to control the speed of the fan. The conventional regulators ... 't forget to properly maintain your electric fan and keep it in good working order. 

Description : Explain frequency domain synthesis. Which techniques fall into the category of frequency domain synthesis?

Description : The fractional-pitch used for eliminating 7th harmonic from the emf wave of an alternator is (A) 2/3 (B) 5/6 (C) 7/8 (D) 6/7

Answer : The fractional-pitch used for eliminating 7th harmonic from the emf wave of an alternator is 6/7

Description : Explain how sinusoidal AC voltage is generated by using simple one loop generator.

Answer : An electric current produced by means of electrical machine is known as generator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. When conductor cuts the magnetic flux, emf induced in it. (Faraday' ... upon position of armature. The nature of emf is alternating as shown by the waveform. 

Description : The second harmonic distortion is defined as the A) Ratio of amplitude of second harmonic component in the output to that of the fundamental frequency B) Harmonic distortion due to only second harmonic component C) Sum of distortion of first and second harmonic components in the output 

Answer : The second harmonic distortion is defined as the Ratio of amplitude of second harmonic component in the output to that of the fundamental frequency

Description : The time period of third harmonic of power supply frequency, in milliseconds, is (A) 20 (B) 3.33 (C) 6.66 (D) 60

Answer : The time period of third harmonic of power supply frequency, in milliseconds, is 6.66 

Description : What is the harmonic filter?

Answer : It is being used to supress the input voltage distortion at input side of any electrical equipment. This distortion is created by other electrical loads like motor, drives etc nearby connected with ... for a range of harmonics or specific harmonics like 3rd harmonics  5th harmonics, 7th harmonics. 

Description : What is harmonic in power quality?

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Answer : Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis mesh analysis

Description : Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis - nodal analysis super node problem solution 2

Answer : Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis - nodal analysis super node problem solution 2

Description : Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis - nodal analysis super node problem solution

Answer : Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis - nodal analysis super node problem solution

Description : Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis - Using nodal analysis, find node voltages in the circuit.

Answer : Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis - Using nodal analysis, find node voltages in the circuit.

Description : Adding Sinusoidal Functions

Answer : Adding Sinusoidal Functions

Description : An ac voltmeter using full -wave rectification and having a sinusoidal input has an ac sensitivity equal to  (1) 1.414 times dc sensitivity (2) dc sensitivity (3) 0.9 times dc sensitivity (4) 0.707 times dc sensitivity

Answer : An ac voltmeter using full -wave rectification and having a sinusoidal input has an ac sensitivity equal to 0.9 times dc sensitivity

Description : When the phase difference between two sinusoidal quantities is 90° they are said to be ______ A) Phase right angle B) Phase quadrature C) Phase sinuright D) None of these

Answer : When the phase difference between two sinusoidal quantities is 90° they are said to be Phase quadrature

Description : The r.m.s. value of a sinusoidal A.C. current is equal to its value at an angle of______degrees.

Answer : The r.m.s. value of a sinusoidal A.C. current is equal to its value at an angle of 45 degrees.

Answer : A sinusoidal voltage of 5 Hz is applied to the field of a shunt generator. The armature voltage wave will be of 5 Hz.

Description : In single pulse modulation of PWM inverters, third harmonic can be eliminated if pulse width is equal to   (a) 30o (b) 60o (c) 120o (d) 150o

Answer : In single pulse modulation of PWM inverters, third harmonic can be eliminated if pulse width is equal to 120o

Description : State the need for reduction of harmonics in inverters. Enlist the various methods for reduction of harmonics in inverter output.

Description : Explain the different recording techniques used in method study. Also outline process chart for checking diameter of 50mm of shaft.

Answer : Different recording techniques used in method study: Process charts are used to record the data systematically so that none of the information needed for study and analysis is missed. A. Chart indicating ... area. However, there is no indication of the direction or speed of motion.

Description : List the different techniques used for signal conditioning in DAS. Explain in brief Any one signal conditioning technique.

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Description : Describe the operation of inductor with sinusoidal AC voltage as input. Draw waveform for voltage across and current through the inductor. Draw its phasor representation.

Answer : An alternating voltage is applied to a purely inductive coil, a back e.m.f. is produced due to self-inductance of the coil. The back e.m.f. at every step, opposes the rise of fall of current through the coil ... drop, the applied voltage has to overcome this self induced e.m.f. only.

Description : The equation, X = A cos(wt + f) (read: X equals A times the cosine of omega t + phi (fee)), can represent an expression for: w) accelerating due to gravity x) uniform straight line motion y) dc current z) a simple harmonic oscillator

Answer : ANSWER: Z -- A SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR

Description : The synchronous speed for the seventh space harmonic mmf wave of a 3-phase, 8-pole, 50 Hz induction machine is  (A) 107.14 rpm in forward direction (B) 107.14 rpm in reverse direction (C) 5250 rpm in forward direction (D) 5250 rpm in reverse direction

Answer : The synchronous speed for the seventh space harmonic mmf wave of a 3-phase, 8-pole, 50 Hz induction machine is 107.14 rpm in forward direction 

Description : The order of the sub-harmonic during SSR for 50 Hz nornal frequency is

Description : Explain the term aseptic techniques. What are the various points to be considered while designing an aseptic room?

Answer : Definition: The method which is used to prevent the access of microorganism during the preparation of parenteral product and their testing are called aseptic Technique . Design of aseptic room: 1. Site: ... connection. Vacuum. Disposable waste. 6. Furniture: Shack type. Fume -cupboard.

Description : Explain the procedure of measurement of productivity? Discuss any two techniques.

Answer : Productivity Measurement: [1] Measurement plays an important role in management of productivity. It helps to determine organization is progressing well or not. It also provides information on how effectively and ... give us the productivity of an entire organization or even a nation.

Description : List out basic transformation techniques. Explain scaling transformation with respect to 2D.

Answer : Basic transformations techniques are: Translation Scaling Rotation Scaling Transformation Scaling means to change the size of object. This change can either be positive or negative. To change ... . If we provide values greater than 1, then we can increase the size of the object. 

Description : Explain with diagram the techniques of Raster Scan Display.

Answer : The most common type of graphics monitor employing a CRT is the Raster-scan displays, based on television technology JPG images are raster based. Light occurs when an electron beam stimulates a phosphor. ... on the screen. If the intensity is zero (0) then no dot is displayed. monitor.

Description : Explain interpolation techniques in curve generation.

Answer : Specify a spline curve by giving a set of coordinate positions, called control points, which indicates the general shape of the curve These, control points are then fitted with piecewise continuous ... a design application. Straight lines connect the control -point positions above the surface.

Description : Explain fast frequency hopping techniques with suitable waveforms. State its advantage and disadvantages. 

Answer : In Fast Frequency hopping multiple frequencies or hops are used to transmit one symbol. The hop rate is higher than symbol rate but chip rate is equal to hop rate For each symbol ... at receiver 3. Complex and expensive digital frequency synthesizers are required 4. Data rates are low

Description : Explain the ultrasonic pulse velocity test and techniques of measuring pulse velocity through concrete.

Answer : Procedure: i. Ultrasonic pulse velocity method consists of measuring the time travel of an ultrasonic pulse passing through the concrete to be tested. ii. The pulse generated circuit consists of ... The transmitting and receiving transducers are placed on same surfaces of the concrete slab

Description : Explain the following energy conservation techniques: (i) By reducing I2R losses in Trans. system (ii) By optimizing distribution voltage.

Answer : i) By reducing I2R losses in Trans:  1. Opting for low resistance All Aluminum Alloy conductors (AAAC) in place of conventional aluminum cored steel reinforced (ACSR) lines. 2. ... line power losses. Thus maintaining the voltages at the specified levels leads to energy savings/conservation.

Description : Explain following techniques related to energy conservation in transmission and distribution system. (i) By balancing phase currents (ii) Variable technical losses (I2R losses).

Answer : (i) Balancing Phase currents: Proper (healthy balanced) three phase loads always draw equal currents in all lines but single phase loads in the 3 phase 4 wire system or loads connected between two ... . 11) Minimize I2R losses. 12) Balance the load currents. 13) Regulate the system voltages.

Description : State and explain different signal conditioning techniques used in DAS. 

Answer : Signal conditioning is the technique of making a signal from a sensor or transducer suitable for processing by data acquisition system. Types of Signal Conditioning Amplification: Amplification increases a ... glass electrodes used to measure pH, or gas concentration probes, are of this type. 

Answer : The scheduler is very important in Real-Time Operating System (RTOS). Selection of tasks for execution is provided by the scheduler. Which task to execute when it is provided by the ... . Non-preemptive scheduling is simple.Preemptive scheduling is flexible while non-preemptive scheduling is rigid.

Description : Explain following unit process with example. (i) Reduction (ii) Calcination (iii) Nitration

Answer : Reduction: Reduction is defined as the addition of hydrogen, removal of oxygen, addition of metallic element or addition of electrons. Eg. Reduction of ethyl bromide Nitrobenzene can be reduced ... Sulfuric acid and con. Nitric acid.  Nitrating mixture is used in nitration reaction.

Description : Explain any four factors affecting size reduction.

Answer : Factors affecting Size Reduction: i. Hardness: Soft material easytobreak than hard. ii. Toughness: Drug with fibrous nature or those having high moisture content are tough and hard to reduce in size ... the size reduction of the material in a machine depends upon the bulk density of the substance.

Description : Explain any four factors affecting size reduction

Answer : Factor affecting size reduction are:  1.Hardness: Soft material easy break than hard.  2.Toughness: Drug with fibrous nature or those having high moisture content are tough and hard to reduce in ... of the size reduction of the material in a machine depends upon the bulk density of the substance.

Description : For a class D commutation, answer the following: i) Explain the operation with circuit diagram. ii) Interpret with waveforms.

Answer : Class D commutation: This is also called as auxiliary commutation because it uses an auxiliary SCR to switch the charged capacitor across conducting SCR to turn it off. In this scheme, the main ... make SCR1 forward biased and keep ready for next triggering. The above cyclic process is repeated.

Description : Explain the pulse width modulation technique for control of AC output voltage.

Description : Explain the electrical losses of magnetic materials used for the cores of inductors and transformer.

Description : explain blanking times for Bridge circuit?

Answer : Blanking time is provided by driver circuit to power switch. Blanking time is important because the turn on input of one transistor must be delayed with turn off input of another transistor if both ... are connected in one converter leg. This blanking time helps in avoiding cross conduction.

Description : Define Amplitude and Phase of Sinusoidal quantity.

Answer : Amplitudes are expressed either as instantaneous values or mostly as peak values.  Amplitude is the fluctuation or displacement of a wave from its mean value.  Phase is the position of a ... .  Phase an expression of relative displacement between or among waves having the same frequency . 

Description : Draw sinusoidal waveform of 3 phase emf and indicate the phase sequence.

Answer : Phase sequence is R-Y-B.

Description : Two sinusoidal signals having the same amplitude and frequency are applied to the X and Y inputs of a CRO. The observed Lissajous figure is straight line. The phase shift between the two signals would be (1) Zero (2) 90 degrees (3) Either zero or 180 degrees (4) Either 90 degrees or 270 degrees  

Answer : Two sinusoidal signals having the same amplitude and frequency are applied to the X and Y inputs of a CRO. The observed Lissajous figure is straight line. The phase shift between the two signals would be (1) Zero (2) 90 degrees (3) Either zero or 180 degrees (4) Either 90 degrees or 270 degrees  

Description : The rms value of the current in a wire which carries a d.c. current of 10 A and a sinusoidal alternating current of peak value 20 A is  (A) 10 A (B) 14.14 A (C) 15 A (D) 17.32 A

Answer : The rms value of the current in a wire which carries a d.c. current of 10 A and a sinusoidal alternating current of peak value 20 A is 17.32 A

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