Explain space vector transformation and space vector switching with the help of diagram. What are the advantages of SVM?

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Description : Explain space diagram & vector diagram

Answer : Space diagram: It is the diagram in which number of forces acting on body is drawn in space to a suitable scale and naming the spaces in order by Bow's notation. Vector diagram: It is the ... of the forces drawn in space diagram by maintaining the same order as it was maintained in space diagram.

Description : Explain series switching control of AC load. Single phase resistance load - Integral half cycle control Phase control - Resistance load

Description : Explain switching model of MOSFET.

Description : Explain the concept of initial and final conditions in switching for L and C.

Answer : i) Inductor: The current through an inductor cannot change instantly. If the inductor current is zero just before switching, then whatever may be the applied voltage, just after switching the inductor ... open-circuit.  The initial and final conditions are summarized in following table:

Answer : A differential relay measures the vector difference between two or more similar electrical quantities.

Description : Source transformation Replace the circuit with voltage source in series with a single resistor

Answer : Source transformation Replace the circuit with voltage source in series with a single resistor

Description : Switching of a lamp in house produces noise in the radio. This is because switching operation produces?

Answer : Switching of a lamp in house produces noise in the radio. This is because switching operation produces arcs across separating contacts.

Description : What is a switching impulse?

Description : What is mean by power switching devices?

Answer : Power switching devices means like BJT, power MOSFET, SCR, TRIAC, GTO etc.

Description : Explain working of AC circuit breaker using SCR with circuit diagram.

Answer : AC Circuit Breaker:  The circuit configuration of static AC circuit breaker using SCR is shown in the figure. When switch S' is closed, the SCRs T1 and T2 are fired in positive ... to non-availability of gate current. Thus the maximum time delay for breaking the circuit is one half-cycle.

Description : Source transformation voltage source to current source and vice versa

Description : Auto-transformer makes effective saving on copper and copper losses, when its transformation ratio is?

Answer : Auto-transformer makes effective saving on copper and copper losses, when its transformation ratio is approximately equal to 1.

Description : Source transformation problem solution

Description : Find the current through 4 ohm resistor by source transformation

Description : Wye Delta Transformation

Answer : Wye Delta Transformation 1 : Wye Delta Transformation 2 : Wye Delta Transformation 3 : Wye Delta Transformation ... 8 : Wye Delta Transformation 9 :

Description : Define: 1) voltage ratio, 2) current ratio, 3) transformation ratio of transformer.

Answer : 1) Voltage ratio: The voltages in primary and secondary winding is proportional to number of turns in primary and secondary respectively. So, the voltage ratio is same as transformation ratio. V2/V1 = N2 ... as transformation ratio of transformer. It is denoted by K. K = N2/N1

Description : What is transformation ratio?

Answer : Transformation Ratio (k):- It is the ratio of secondary number of turns to primary number of turns. OR It is the ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage. OR It is the ratio of primary current to secondary current. 

Description : The voltage transformation ratio of a transformer is equal to the ratio of?

Answer : The voltage transformation ratio of a transformer is equal to the ratio of secondary induced e.m.f. to primary induced e.m.f.

Description : Use of auto-transformer is economical when the transformation ratio is?

Answer : Use of auto-transformer is economical when the transformation ratio is near unity.

Description : Draw the circuit diagram of battery charger using SCR and explain it’s working.

Answer : Battery charger circuit using SCR: The figure shows the battery charger circuit using SCR. A 12V discharged battery is connected in the circuit and switch SW is closed. The singlephase 230V ... not fired. In this way, after full charging, further charging is automatically stopped.

Description : Describe the working principle of Thyristor operated dimmer with the help of circuit diagram.

Answer : Thyristor operated dimmer: A popular thyristor operated dimmer circuit employ TRIAC-DIAC phase control for low AC power control. During each half-cycle, the capacitor charges through (R1+VR1). When the ... time constant {C (R1+VR1)}. Thus by reducing VR1 the lamp brightness can be increased.

Description : What are the disadvantages of the linear regulator? how are they overcome in the switching regulator? What is continuous and discontinuous mode switching regulator?

Answer : Disadvantages of the linear regulator: Linear regulator waste power in the form of heat. Linear regulator has very low efficiency. Linear regulator cannot be used for the step ... between continuous mode and discontinuous mode switching regulator.

Description : Draw the structural diagram of GTO. Explain briefly the switching behavior of GTO with the help of appropriate voltage and current waveform.

Answer : Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO) Conventional Thyristor can be turned on with gate terminal but can not turn off from gate terminal. But in case of Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO), we can turn it on and off ... subdivided as storage period (Ts), fall period (Tp) and tail period (Tt).

Description : Draw circuit diagram of symmetrical configuration of bridge converter.

Answer : circuit diagram of symmetrical configuration of bridge converter

Description : Draw circuit diagram of Class B commutation.

Answer : Class B: Resonant Pulse Commutation:

Description : The four traditional branches of Earth and Space Science are:

Answer : Astronomy, Meteorology, Hydrology, and Geology 

Description : Calculate the size of memory address space for a 16 bit data and 20 bit address bus. A) 1 MB B) 2 MB C) 3 MB D) 4 MB

Answer : Calculate the size of memory address space for a 16 bit data and 20 bit address bus. A) 1 MB B) 2 MB C) 3 MB D) 4 MB

Description : Explain MCB and ELCB with connection diagram supplying single phase load. 

Answer : OR OR Explanation: * MCB provides short circuit protection. * MCB provides overload protection * ELCB provides earth fault protection. * MCB is in series with ... occurs, the ELCB cuts off the power within the time of 0.1 sec. automatically to protect the personnel. 

Description : Explain dynamic and static induced emf with neat diagram.

Answer : Dynamically Induced EMF:-  In this case, either coil moves or magnet moves, so that there is relative motion between coil & magnetic field. Thus magnetic field is cut by coil & emf is induced in it. The emf ... The expression for induced EMF is e= -L(di/dt) or = -N(dϕ/dt).

Description : Explain with neat diagram series and parallel magnetic circuits. 

Answer : Series magnetic circuit: When different magnetic materials having different lengths, cross sectional areas and permeability are connected one after another, in which same flux is established in different sections, then it is called series ... flux, Φ = Φ1 + Φ2  Path 1: BAFE  Path 2: BACD

Description : Explain count up (CTU) instruction with timing diagram.

Answer : The CTU is an instruction that counts false-to-true rung transitions. Rung transitions can be caused by events occurring in the program. When rung conditions for a CTU instruction have made a false-to-true ... of Counter up(CTU) Instruction: Too many uploads - please try again in an hour

Description : Explain the working of Neon sign tube with diagram.

Answer : Neon sign tube: The construction & circuit diagram for neon tube is as shown in fig. Basically neon tube is used for advertisement or decoration purpose. The maximum length of tube is ... the HT transformer must be earthed separately. * Caution notice of danger board is required.

Description : Explain the working of HPMV Lamp with neat diagram.

Answer : High-pressure Mercury-Vapour Lamp (HPMVL):  Working:  * Whenever 1-ph, 230V, AC Supply is provided to the discharge tube of MVL, initially the current flows from Phase to the choke to ... : The function of power factor improvement capacitor is to improve the power factor from 0.5 to 0.95.

Description : What is PLL? Explain its operation with a block diagram.

Answer : PLL - A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal Block diagram  ... to the input frequency. The phase - locked loop goes through three states free running capture and phase lock.

Description : Explain the procedure to perform Short Circuit test on single phase transformer with circuit diagram.

Description : Explain with neat diagram the working of photo-voltaic cell. 

Answer : Diagram the working of photo-voltaic cell: Working:- Solar cell operates on principle of Photo-voltaic effect    Solar cell works in following steps: The solar cell is composed ... . When you connect loads such as a light bulb, electric current flows between the two electrodes.  

Description : Explain with block diagram photovoltaic power generation.

Answer : Photovoltaic power generation:  Photovoltaic power generating system consists of following components: 1. Photovoltaic cell panel: Its function is to convert energy content of sunrays directly into DC ... . Step-up transformer: It step-up input voltage to utilization voltage e.g. 230V.

Description : Explain with schematic diagram direct distribution of solar energy.

Answer : Explain with schematic diagram direct distribution of solar energy: Solar energy reaching earth's surface consists of two components: i) Direct solar energy, ii) Diffused solar energy. Direct solar energy ... radiation. It is very intense radiation and it can produce sun burns and shadows.

Description : Explain with diagram load duration curve.

Answer : It is drawn from load curve. It is graph of load (MW/KW) arranged in descending order of magnitude with respect to time. 

Description : Explain construction & working of attraction type M.I. instrument with neat diagram.

Answer : 1. Moving element: a small piece of soft iron in the form of a vane or rod.  2. In Attracted type a cylindrical coil or solenoid which is kept fixed. An oval-shaped soft-iron piece are ...   9. When = the pointer will be stable & we can get correct reading of the electrical quantity

Description : Explain spring control method with neat diagram.

Answer : Spring Control Method: As shown in the figure the inner ends of the both springs are attahced to the spindle ,while outer end of upper spring is attached to the lever and outer end of ... the springs are twisted in opposite direction to the motion of pointer and produce controlling torque.

Description : Explain the basic operation of an oscilloscope with necessary diagram for each section in detail.

Description : Draw the labeled block diagram of process control system and explain each block.

Answer : Explanation - Process control system consists of process or plant, sensor, error detector, automatic Controller, actuator or control element. 1) Process or plant- process means some manufacturing sequence ... process which changes the process variable. Output of this block is denoted by u .

Description : Draw the block diagram of regulated power supply, explain function of each block and draw waveforms of each stage.

Answer : 1. A step down transformer 2. A rectifier 3. A filter 4. A regulator Operation of Regulated Power Supply:- Step Down Transformer:- A step down transformer will ... regulator. A regulator will maintain the output constant even when changes at the input or any other changes occur.

Description : Draw block diagram for CNC drilling machine and explain its working.

Answer : Block diagram consist of the following points:  Machine tool with DC servo motor as feedback element. The transducer is added as adaptive control application.  The auxiliary controller ... line.  The interrupt pulses are generated by TBG and supplied to computer through inter

Description : Draw the block diagram of satellite sub-system and explain power subsystem.

Answer : POWER SUBSYSTEM- This system provides the necessary DC power to the satellite. All communication satellites derive their electrical power from solar cells. There is also a battery backup facility used during ... . to d.c. converter is used to raise the level of low voltages to high voltage.

Description : Draw the wiring diagram of fluorescent tube. Explain the working of choke and starter. 

Answer : Fluorescent lamp:- Operation:- When switch is ON current flows through the choke-filament no1- starter-filament no. 2- to neutral, At that time choke induces high voltage which is applied to ... at the time of starting. ii) Starter: To make and break the circuit to start the tube. 

Description : Draw the circuit diagram of crystal oscillator and explain its working.

Answer : To excite a crystal for operation in the series-resonant mode it may be connected as a series element in a feedback path, the crystal impedance is the smallest and the amount of positive feedback is the largest. ... which is good.  The resonant frequency is given as  Fo = 1/( 2 π √LC ) 

Description : Draw and explain Hartley Oscillator circuit diagram.

Answer : Function of each component: 1. An NPN transistor connected in a common emitter configuration works as the active device in amplifier stage and CE configuration provides 180°phase shift. 2. R1 and R2 ... circuit to the base-emitter circuit.  The frequency of oscillation is given as-  

Description : Draw block diagram of PLL as a FM demodulator. Explain function of each block.

Answer : Operation:  The FM signal which is to be demodulated is applied at the input of the PLL.  the PLL is locked to the FM  The error voltage produced at ... using PLL ensures a high Linearity, between the instantaneous input frequency and VCO control voltage (error amplifier output)

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