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Explain the electrical losses of magnetic materials used for the cores of inductors and transformer.

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Description : Those magnetic materials are best suited for making armature and transformer cores which have____permeability and_______hystersis loss.

Answer : Those magnetic materials are best suited for making armature and transformer cores which have high permeability and low hystersis loss.

Description : Laminated cores, in electrical machines, are used to reduce?

Answer : Laminated cores, in electrical machines, are used to reduce eddy current loss.

Description : Classify magnetic materials and explain in brief.

Answer : .embed-container { position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%; height: 0; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; } .embed-container iframe, .embed-container object, .embed-container embed { ... the absence of external magnetic field. Following are the ferromagnetic materials: Iron, Cobalt, Nickel.

Description : Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials

Answer : We have now looked at a number of ways in which matter can be grouped, such as into metals, semi-metals and non-metals; electrical conductors and insulators, and thermal conductors and insulators. ... information must be stored, in computers and TV's, as well as in generators and electric motors.

Description : Explain the electrical characteristics of transformer.

Answer : Transformer electrical characteristics: Area of primary and secondary conductors, Apri and Asec: Winding loss Pw: Flux density and core loss: Leakage inductance: ... transformer span. The rise in temperature may breakdown insulation which may cause failure of the transformer.

Description : In a given transformer for a given applied voltage, losses which remain constant irrespective of load changes are?

Answer : In a given transformer for a given applied voltage, losses which remain constant irrespective of load changes are hysteresis and eddy current losses.

Description : Classify electrical materials.

Answer : Classification of electrical materials: i) Conducting Materials ii) Insulating materials iii) Magnetic materials iv) Semiconducting materials

Description : What is the meaning of electrical materials?

Description : Reduction in core losses and increase in permeability are obtained with transformer employing?

Answer : Reduction in core losses and increase in permeability are obtained with transformer employing core built-up of laminations of cold rolled grain oriented steel.

Description : State the insulating materials used in motor. Write temperature class and withstand temperature ranges for them. 

Answer : The insulating materials used in motor are as belows: 1. Cotton, 2. Silk, or paper, 3. Press board, 4. Resins 5. PVC 6. Cellulose-Fiber, 7. Enameled coating, etc  ... Over 180° Mica, porcelain, ceramics, glass quartz, asbestos, treated glass fiber or treated asbestos. etc.

Description : List any four materials used for pattern making

Answer : The various types of materials used are as follows: 1. Wood 2. Metal. 3. Plastic. 4. Plaster. 5. Wax.

Description : State the material used for making (1) Magnetic Core (2) Fuse element  

Answer : The material used for making of:  (1) Magnetic Core : Iron, cobalt, Nickel, CRGO, HRGO , silicon steel  (2) Fuse Element: Tin- lead wire, Tinned copper wire 

Description : The path of magnetic flux in a transformer should have?

Answer : The path of magnetic flux in a transformer should have low reluctance.

Description : How can a magnetic field be used to generate an electric current?

Answer : Magnetic  field  can  be  used  to  generate  electric  current  on  a  condition  that  it  is  on  a  rate  of  changing  magnetic  flux.  (Faraday's  law)

Description : State two types of inductors and give their applications.

Answer : Types of inductors: i) Air cored inductor ii) Iron cored inductor iii) Ferrite cored inductor Air cored inductor: These are used for high frequency application e.g. Radio sets ... radio receiver, wide band pulse transformers, oscillators, signal generators, high frequency amplifiers, etc. 

Answer : The efficiency of transformer is Greater than electrical Machine because there is no rotational losses in transformer and there is no air gap losses in transformer so losses is less in transformer compare to electrical machine so efficiency is higher in case of transformer.

Description : Silicon steel is used in electrical machines because it has?

Answer : Silicon steel is used in electrical machines because it has low hysteresis loss.

Answer : The inverse definite mean time relays are used for over current and earth fault protection of transformer against internal short-circuits.

Description : Explain the on state losses in power BJT.

Answer : On state losses in power BJT: Transistor have four types of losses one is turn on state losses second is turn off state losses third is turn on switching losses and fourth is turn ... ON = VCE sat x IC With increasing collector current collector to emitter saturation voltage increases.

Description : IDMT relays are used to protect the transformer against :  (A) Internal short -circuits (B) Open circuits (C) External short circuits (D) Oil leakage

Answer : IDMT relays are used to protect the transformer against : External short circuits

Answer :  Sandwich type winding is used in 3 phase shell-type transformer.

Description : Auto-transformer makes effective saving on copper and copper losses, when its transformation ratio is?

Answer : Auto-transformer makes effective saving on copper and copper losses, when its transformation ratio is approximately equal to 1.

Description : Define magnetic permeability. State and explain the factors affecting permeability of magnetic materials

Answer : Permeability : The capability of the magnetic material to conduct the magnetic flux is known as permeability. Permeability and hysteresis loss are inversely related to each other. Factors ... impurities affect the geometric pattern of the crystals and are harmful to the magnetic property. 

Description : Explain the “mitigation of power theft” and “faulty meter replacement” for energy conservation techniques to reduce commercial losses. 

Answer : Energy conservation techniques to reduce commercial losses:  1. Mitigation of Power Theft: Power theft being the most important issue which all of the service providing utilities ... agricultural sector. Prepaid meters may prove effective measures against unauthorized abstraction of energy. 

Description : Explain hysteresis loss, eddy current loss and skin effect limitations with reference to magnetic material.

Answer : Hysteresis loss: Hysteresis loss is a loss which occurs due to the friction of magnetic domain due to the change in magnetic field in ferromagnetic material like iron. Hysteresis loss causes power loss ... loss in transformer is given by, We=Kef2Kf2Bm2watts Skin effect limitations:

Description : Explain following techniques related to energy conservation in transmission and distribution system. (i) By balancing phase currents (ii) Variable technical losses (I2R losses).

Answer : (i) Balancing Phase currents: Proper (healthy balanced) three phase loads always draw equal currents in all lines but single phase loads in the 3 phase 4 wire system or loads connected between two ... . 11) Minimize I2R losses. 12) Balance the load currents. 13) Regulate the system voltages.

Description : Select insulating materials for following parts : (i) Insulation between heating element and base plate of electric iron. (ii) Insulation used over copper or aluminium conductor used for making coils. (iii) Transformer bushings. (iv) Insulation between transmission line and pole.

Answer : Parts Insulating Materials  Insulation between heating element and base plate of electric iron. Mica Insulation used over copper or aluminium conductor used for making coils.  ... Transformer bushings Porcelain  Insulation between transmission line and pole. Porcelain

Description : _______ is used for heating non -conducting materials.  (1) Eddy current heating (2) Arc heating (3) Induction heating (4) Dielectric heating

Answer : Dielectric heating is used for heating non -conducting materials. 

Description : Explain the mechanical properties of insulating materials.

Answer : i) Mechanical strength: Mechanical strength depends on temperature and humidity. a) Temperature: High temperature badly affects the mechanical strength of insulating material. While selecting material ... material should have property of easy moulding and machined into required shape and size.

Description : Losses which occur in rotating electric machines and do not occur in transformers are?

Answer : Friction losses windage losses 

Description : State and explain Ohm's law for magnetic circuit.

Answer : Ohm's law for electric circuit is V = I R where V is voltage, I is current, R is Resistance. Ohm's law for magnetic circuit is MMF = Φ X S where MMF is magnetomotive force (NI) ... . Resistance is the opposition to the flow of current while reluctance is the opposition to the flow of magnetic flux.

Description : State the losses in secondary distribution system. 

Answer : The losses in secondary distribution system: a) Technical losses: 1. Due to poor voltage 2. Due to unbalance load 3. Due poor quality of transformer & its components 4. Due to poor quality ... of induction type of energy meter. 3. Lack of administration. 4. Energy theft 5. Unmetered supply

Description : The friction losses in Real Transformers are :  (A) 0% (B) 5% (C) 25% (D) 50%

Answer : A

Description : Which of the following can reduce the Eddy current losses? A) By making the core of a stack of plates electrically insulated from each other B) By making the core of solid block C) By increasing the applied voltage  D) None of these

Answer : Which of the following can reduce the Eddy current losses? A) By making the core of a stack of plates electrically insulated from each other B) By making the core of solid block C) By increasing the applied voltage  D) None of these

Description : In DC motor iron losses are occurred in?

Answer : In DC motor iron losses are occurred in the armature.

Answer : Iron losses in a D.C. machine are independent of variations in load.

Answer : In case of D.C. machines, mechanical losses are primary function of speed.

Answer : In a D.C. generator, the iron losses mainly take place in armature rotor.

Answer : The total losses in a well designed D.C. generator of 10 kW will be nearly 500 W.

Description : In a synchronous motor which losses varies with load?

Answer : In a synchronous motor, copper losses varies with load.

Description : What are the losses in a transmission line?

Description : What are the types of power losses in inductor?

Answer : Copper losses, Eddy current loss, and hysteresis loss are the types of power losses in inductor.

Description : What is the percentage of stray losses in DC machine?

Answer : Percentage of stray losses in DC machine is about 1 % .

Description : In synchronous motor, does the winding losses vary with load?

Answer : No, in the synchronous motor the winding losses do not vary with load.

Answer : Iron loss, copper loss and mechanical losses these are the losses in DC machine.

Description : Those materials are well suited for making permanent magnets which have _____ retentivity and _______ coercivity.

Answer : Those materials are well suited for making permanent magnets which have high retentivity and high coercivity.

Description : The bridge most suited for accurate measurement of relative permittivity of dielectric materials is (A) Carey Foster Bridge (B) Anderson’s bridge (C) Heaviside Bridge modified by Campbell. (D) Schering Bridge.

Answer : The bridge most suited for accurate measurement of relative permittivity of dielectric materials is Schering Bridge.

Description : Explain transformer isolated drive circuits providing both signal and power.

Description : Explain the single pass transformer design procedure step by step by giving its flowchart.

Answer : single pass transformer design procedure step by step by giving its flowchart:

Description : Explain with neat diagram series and parallel magnetic circuits. 

Answer : Series magnetic circuit: When different magnetic materials having different lengths, cross sectional areas and permeability are connected one after another, in which same flux is established in different sections, then it is called series ... flux, Φ = Φ1 + Φ2  Path 1: BAFE  Path 2: BACD

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