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What is electrical instruments?

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Description : Electrical Measuring Instruments

Answer : Electrical Measuring Instruments

Description : What do you mean by secondary instruments?

Answer : The instruments which will give the direct readings are called secondary instruments

Description : Permanent magnet moving coil instruments are used for

Answer : PMME are mostly used for measuring voltage and current.

Answer : Commonly used instruments in power system measurement are induction.

Answer : Operating torques in analogue instruments are deflecting, control and damping.

Answer : The power factor of a single phase load can be calculated if the instruments available are three ammeters or three voltmeters.

Answer : The switch board instruments should be mounted in vertical position.

Answer : In the majority of instruments, damping is provided by eddy currents.

Answer : According to application, instruments are classified as switch board, portable.

Answer : The use of absolute instruments is merely confined within laboratories as standardizing instruments.

Description : How instruments are classified?

Description : What is the electrical instrumentation?

Answer : The electrical power to a meggar is provided by permanent magnet D.C. generator.

Description : Compare analog and digital instruments .

Answer : Parameter Analog Instrument Digital Instrument  1 Principle The instrument that displays analog signals is called as on analog instrument.  The instrument that displays ... , etc. Logical analyzer, signature analyzer, computers, microprocessor based instruments, etc. 

Description : calibration and the need of calibration for measuring instruments.

Answer : Calibration - It is a process of estimating the value of a quantity by comparing that quantity with a standard quantity.    Need of calibration: - Calibration defines the accuracy and ... aim of calibration is to minimize any measurement uncertainty by ensuring the accuracy of test equipment.

Description : Advantages of digital instruments

Answer : 1. They are having high input impedance, so there is no loading effect 2. They are having higher accuracy 3. An unambiguous reading is obtained 4. The output can be interfaced with external equipment 5. They are available in smaller size . 

Description : State the effect of dead zone on instruments.

Answer : It is the largest change in input during which the output remains constant. So during dead zone, even if input changes, output remains the same.

Description : Define: i) Range ii) Span of instruments

Answer : i) Range: It is defined as the difference between Greatest and Smallest value of the data or reading of the instrument.  ii) Span: It is defined as the algebraic difference between the upper and lower range values

Description : Explain the essential toques in analog type measuring instruments.

Answer : List of torques in analog instruments:  1. Deflecting torque  2. Controlling / Restraining torque.  3. Damping torque.  1. Deflecting torque: To create deflection proportional to ... the speed higher will be the damping torque bringing the pointer to the equilibrium position quickly. 

Description : State two purposes of calibration of measuring instruments.

Answer : Purposes of calibration of measuring instruments: - The purpose of calibration is to ensure that readings of an instrument are consistent with other instruments. It is also important in determining the ... will need to be calibrated periodically to make sure it can function properly and safely. 

Description : List three types of errors in measuring instruments. Give reasons of occurring for any one of them.

Answer : Types of errors in measuring instruments:  A) Gross error: These are due to mistakes on the part of person using the instrument.  B) Systematic Error: i) Instrumental Error: These ... multiplying factor.  C) Random error: These persist even after gross and systematic errors are removed.

Description : State the meaning of secondary instrument. Classify secondary instruments.

Answer : Secondary instruments: - Gives reading directly of the quantity being measured. - Calibrated with respect to absolute instruments  Classification of Secondary instruments:  1. Depending on the ... on permissible error: i) Standard meters ii) Substandard meters iii) First grade instruments.

Description : Define following terms related to measuring instruments: i) Sensitivity ii) Selectivity.

Answer : i) Sensitivity: It is the ratio of the change in output signal to the change in input signal of quantity being measured.  ii) Selectivity: It is the term to describe fulfillment of the requirements of measurement by an instrument to be suitable for use in a given situation. 

Description : List out any four effects of electric current used in measuring instruments & write name of meter working on it.

Answer : Effects of Electric Current used in measuring instruments:  1. Magnetic Effect: PMMC and Moving Iron type Ammeters, voltmeter and Dynamometer type wattmeters etc.  2. Electromagnetic induction ... . Electrostatic effect: Voltmeters.  5. Hall Effect: Flux meter, Poynting vector wattmeter.

Description : Describe systematic errors in measuring instruments. 

Answer : Systematic errors: -  ➢ Instrumental Error: These errors are caused due to the mechanical structure of measuring instrument.  a) Inherent shortcomings of instruments: Instrument may read ... or electrostatic fields.  ➢ Observational Error: Parallax errors, incorrect multiplying factor. 

Description : Compare primary and secondary instruments.

Answer : Primary instruments  Secondary instruments  Gives magnitude of quantity in terms of physical constants of instrument  Gives reading directly of the quantity measured.  Need no calibration  ... .  e.g. magnetic meter, induction meter, hotwire meter and electrostatic meter 

Description : State the material used for moving coil and former for PMMC instruments. 

Answer : Material Used for Moving Coil and Former for PMMC Instruments:  Material used for moving coil: Copper  Material used for Former: Aluminium

Description : List any four effects employed in measuring instruments.

Answer : Effects Employed in Measuring Instruments: 1. Magnetic Effect 2. Electromagnetic induction 3. Heating effect 4. Electrostatic effect 5. Hall Effect 

Description : Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI)

Answer : Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI) SCPI stands for Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments it is often pronounced as Skippy. SCPI is a instrument language that control the ... is for storing data in instrument. Display : for presentation.

Description : What is the advantage of AC over DC electrical transmission?

Description : What are the main electrical equipment used in HPS ? State the function of each parts of it in brief. 

Answer : Following Main Electrical Equipment used in HPS & their function: 1. Alternator 2. Exciter 3. Transformer 4. Switchgear   Function :  1) Alternator:- Alternator is coupled to ... part from the healthy section. It contains circuit breaker, relays, switches and other control devices.  

Description : What is the function of an electrical filter ?

Answer : Filter separates different components that are mixed together. Electrical filter can separate different frequency components. Electrical filters are the electrical circuits which are use to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal.

Description : What is electrical circuit ?

Answer : An electric circuit is the interconnection of electrical elements. Electrical elements like battery, lamp, wire etc.

Description : What is the meaning of electrical materials?

Description : What is a node in an electrical circuit?

Answer : a positively charged electrons

Description : What is a drive in electrical controls?

Description : What does BIL stand for in electrical terms?

Answer : BIL stands for Basic Insulation Level.

Description : What is the difference between linear and nonlinear electrical loads?

Description : What is the definition of an electrical system?

Description : Is it possible to apply superposition theorem to nonlinear circuit? If yes, why? and if no, why? Explain

Description : How to replace the electrical wiring in the apartment?

Answer : How to replace the electrical wiring in the apartment? In most cases, when renovating an apartment, a complete replacement of the electrical wiring is required, especially if the house was built in ... Upon completion of the finishing, the new electrical wiring in your apartment is ready for use.

Description : Briefly explain how an electrical generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Answer : Working principle of DC generator: * Working principle of DC generator is the principle of dynamically induced emf or electromagnetic induction. * According to this principle, when flux is cut by a conductor, an ... , the flux is cut by the armature winding and an emf is dynamically induced in it. 

Description : Explain the suitability of aluminium as an electrical conductor with respect to its mechanical and electrical properties. 

Answer : Following are requirements of conductor:- i) High conductivity :  Material should have high conductivity, So that * cross section of conductor (size) reduces, * Copper losses reduces, * So Efficiency ... . Boiling point is 1820°C 9. Specific gravity is 2.7 10. High resistance to corrosion. 

Description : State different types of electrical signal and draw all types of waveforms.

Answer : Types of electrical signals 1) Sine wave 2) Triangular wave 3) Square wave Waveforms

Description : Explain the need of maintenance of electrical equipment.

Description : State the external causes of failure of electrical equipment.

Description : Write measures to be taken to maintain the insulation resistance of electrical machines to healthy levels.

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