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What are the losses in a transmission line?

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Description : Explain following techniques related to energy conservation in transmission and distribution system. (i) By balancing phase currents (ii) Variable technical losses (I2R losses).

Answer : (i) Balancing Phase currents: Proper (healthy balanced) three phase loads always draw equal currents in all lines but single phase loads in the 3 phase 4 wire system or loads connected between two ... . 11) Minimize I2R losses. 12) Balance the load currents. 13) Regulate the system voltages.

Description : While calculating performance of medium transmission line, what assumptions are made in case of (i) Nominal 'T' Method (ii) Nominal 'TT' Method. 

Answer : (i) Assumptions are made in case of Nominal 'T' Method:  a. It is assume that line capacitance is connected at center of transmission line. b. It is assume that half ... assumed that transmission line resistance & reactance per phase is connected in between two half transmission line capacitance 

Description : In a transmission line if booster transformers are to be used, preferred location will be  (A) At the receiving end (B) At the sending end (C) At the intermediate point (D) Anywhere in the line 

Answer : In a transmission line if booster transformers are to be used, preferred location will be At the intermediate point

Description : The sending end and receiving end voltages of a three-phase transmission line are 10 kV/ph and 9.5 kV/ph, respectively. If the resistance drop is 150 V/ph and receiving end power factor is 0.8, the sending end power factor is (A) 0.745 lagging (B) 0.775 lagging (C) 0.8 lagging (D) 0.85 lagging

Answer : Vscos¢s-Vrcos¢r=IR

Description : A 50Ω transmission line is terminated in an impedance of 20-j50. What will be the reflection coefficient? A) 0.69 B) 1.69 C) 6.9 D) 16.9 

Answer : A 50Ω transmission line is terminated in an impedance of 20-j50. What will be the reflection coefficient? A) 0.69 B) 1.69 C) 6.9 D) 16.9 

Description : what is mean by medium transmission line ?

Answer : The transmission line which have length between 80 km to 250 km is known as medium transmission line.

Description : what is mean by short transmission line ?

Answer : The transmission lines which have length less than 80 km is known as short transmission lines.

Description : what is mean by long transmission line ?

Answer : The transmission line which have length more than 250 km are known as long transmission lines.

Description : HVDC transmission line in India: 

Answer : HVDC transmission line in India:  S.N .  From To  Voltage 1 Rihand (U.P) (from 1990) Dadri +- 500 KV (bipolar) 2 Talcher- is the biggest ... (Chandrapur) Western Region  140KV   8 Connecting Southern region(Vizag- Gajuwaka) Eastern Region 140KV 

Description : Series capacitive compensation in EHV transmission line is used to

Answer : To maintain voltage stability 

Description : State the limitations of EHVAC transmission line. 

Answer : Following are the Limitations of EHVAC Transmission:   1. Insulation cost increases as voltage increases 2. Skin effect is more 3. Proximity effect is more. 4. Corona loss increases. 5. Radio ... 18. EHVAC is economical only for bulk amount of power is to be transmitted over long distance. 

Description : State line parameters of transmission line. 

Answer : Following are the of Line parameters of transmission line:  1. Resistance  2. Inductance  3. Capacitance

Description : State the impact of inductance and resistance on transmission line performance

Answer : Impact of inductance on transmission line: 1) It causes IXL drop in transmission line which affects regulation. 2) It is the only parameter which decides power transmission capacity of line i. ... is very small, it causes losses, temperature rise& poor voltage regulation so it cannot be neglected

Description : effect of inductance and capacitance on performance of transmission line.

Answer : Following are the effect on performance of transmission line:  1. Due to inductance (L) voltage drop in transmission line produces.  2. Capacitor (C) draws charging current ... , transmission line efficiency, voltage regulation & also power factor of transmission line gets affected. 

Description : effect of line parameter on performance of transmission line. 

Answer : Following are the effect of line parameter on performance of transmission line:  1. Due to resistance (R), voltage drop in transmission line & copper losses in transmission line ... transmission line efficiency, voltage regulation & also power factor of transmission line gets affected. 

Description : Why is transmission line 11kV, 33kV 66kV Not Is 10kV, 20kV, 30kV ?

Answer : 10kv plus to compensate losses in olden days 1kv were added and transmitted. Since all equipment used for transmission have a multiple of 11 from olden days, still that is being followed even though the losses are ... voltages, multiples of 11 is eazy for winding ratios.. i.e. 11kv to 33kv is 1:3.

Description : Stability of a transmission line can be increased by

Answer : Stability of a transmission line can be increased by Shunt capacitor, Series capacitor

Description : The sag of a transmission line is least affected by (A) Self weight of the conductor. (B) Temperature of the surrounding air. (C) Current through the conductor. (D) Ice deposited on the conductor.

Answer : The sag of a transmission line is least affected by Current through the conductor.

Description : A transmission line has 1 P.0 impedance on a base of 11 KV, 100 MVA. On a base of 55 KV. it will have a P.0 impedance of

Answer : A transmission line has 1 P.0 impedance on a base of 11 KV, 100 MVA. On a base of 55 KV. it will have a P.0 impedance of 0.02 P.U

Description : For a short transmission line with r/x ratio of is 1.0, the regulation will be zero when the load power factor is

Answer : For a short transmission line with r/x ratio of is 1.0, the regulation will be zero when the load power factor is 0.707 lead

Description : A transmission line of 200 km has a certain A, B, C and D parameters. If the length is reduced to 60 km

Answer : A transmission line of 200 km has a certain A, B, C and D parameters. If the length is reduced to 60 km A increases, B decreases

Description : Transmission efficiency of a transmission line increases with the

Answer : Transmission efficiency of a transmission line increases with the increase in power factor and voltage

Answer : Reactance relay is preferred for phase fault on short transmission line.

Answer : When a wave propagates on a transmission line, it suffers reflection several times at sending and other end.

Answer : The interaction between a transmission line and communication line is minimized by transposing transmission as well as communication lines, increasing the height of the transmission line tower, increasing the distance between the two lines.

Answer : When a transmission line is energized, the wave that propagates on it is current wave and voltage wave.

Answer : A transmission line is protected by distance protection, time graded and current graded overcurrent protection.

Description : What are the advantages of high voltage transmission?

Answer : Advantages:  1. As Transmission voltage increases, current decreases. 2. As current decreases, cross section of conductor decreases. 3. As cross section of conductor decreases ... line increases  12. As transmission voltage increases power handling capacity of transmission line increases 

Description : What is the difference between line and phase current?

Answer : The currents flows through phase lines is called line voltage and currents flows from phase to neutral line is called phase current

Description : What is the difference between line and phase voltage?

Answer : Line voltage  is  voltage  between two  phases R &Y  (415 v)  while  phase  voltage  is  the  voltage  between  one  phase and  a neutral  B &  N   (240 v).

Description : What is the difference between a line voltage and low voltage control system?

Description : In voltage source converter based HVDC transmission system the active power is controlled by changing (A) phase angle of the converter ac input voltage (B) supply frequency of the converter ac input voltage (C) magnitude of the converter ac input voltage (D) DC voltage at the inverter terminals

Answer : In voltage source converter based HVDC transmission system the active power is controlled by changing phase angle of the converter ac input voltage

Description : Why high voltage is used in power transmission?

Answer : The primary reason that power is transmitted at high voltages is to increase efficiency. ... The lower current that accompanies high voltage transmissionreduces resistance in the conductors aselectricity flows ... This means that thin, light-weight wires can beused in long-distance transmission.

Description : What are the types of power losses in inductor?

Answer : Copper losses, Eddy current loss, and hysteresis loss are the types of power losses in inductor.

Answer : Iron loss, copper loss and mechanical losses these are the losses in DC machine.

Description : The friction losses in Real Transformers are :  (A) 0% (B) 5% (C) 25% (D) 50%

Answer : A

Description : In DC motor iron losses are occurred in?

Answer : In DC motor iron losses are occurred in the armature.

Answer : Iron losses in a D.C. machine are independent of variations in load.

Answer : In case of D.C. machines, mechanical losses are primary function of speed.

Description : Reduction in core losses and increase in permeability are obtained with transformer employing?

Answer : Reduction in core losses and increase in permeability are obtained with transformer employing core built-up of laminations of cold rolled grain oriented steel.

Description : Losses which occur in rotating electric machines and do not occur in transformers are?

Answer : Friction losses windage losses 

Description : In a given transformer for a given applied voltage, losses which remain constant irrespective of load changes are?

Answer : In a given transformer for a given applied voltage, losses which remain constant irrespective of load changes are hysteresis and eddy current losses.

Description : What is the percentage of stray losses in DC machine?

Answer : Percentage of stray losses in DC machine is about 1 % .

Description : State the losses in secondary distribution system. 

Answer : The losses in secondary distribution system: a) Technical losses: 1. Due to poor voltage 2. Due to unbalance load 3. Due poor quality of transformer & its components 4. Due to poor quality ... of induction type of energy meter. 3. Lack of administration. 4. Energy theft 5. Unmetered supply

Answer : In a D.C. generator, the iron losses mainly take place in armature rotor.

Answer : The total losses in a well designed D.C. generator of 10 kW will be nearly 500 W.

Description : In a synchronous motor which losses varies with load?

Answer : In a synchronous motor, copper losses varies with load.

Description : In synchronous motor, does the winding losses vary with load?

Answer : No, in the synchronous motor the winding losses do not vary with load.

Description : Explain the on state losses in power BJT.

Answer : On state losses in power BJT: Transistor have four types of losses one is turn on state losses second is turn off state losses third is turn on switching losses and fourth is turn ... ON = VCE sat x IC With increasing collector current collector to emitter saturation voltage increases.

Description : Explain the “mitigation of power theft” and “faulty meter replacement” for energy conservation techniques to reduce commercial losses. 

Answer : Energy conservation techniques to reduce commercial losses:  1. Mitigation of Power Theft: Power theft being the most important issue which all of the service providing utilities ... agricultural sector. Prepaid meters may prove effective measures against unauthorized abstraction of energy. 

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