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What is meant by stabilization in transistor?

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Description : What is thermal runaway of a transistor?

Description : What is the main use of a transistor?

Answer : Main use of a transistor as amplifier and as switch.

Description : What is self biasing of transistor?

Description : Why biasing is required for a transistor?

Description : What do you mean by biasing of a transistor?

Description : What is role of HFE in transistor ?

Description : Explain working of n-p-n transistor in unbiased condition.

Answer : Construction of NPN transistor: For an unbiased transistor no external power supplies are connected to it. Base is sandwiched between collector & emitter terminal. It is thin & lightly doped ... providing external power supply to transistor & this process is known as Biasing.

Description : Compare P.N.P and N.P.N transistor.

Answer : Parameter PNP transistor NPN transistor Definition Two blocks of p- types semiconductors are separated by one thin block of n-type semiconductor. Transistor in which two ntype layer ... Positive Voltage  Emitter Terminal Collector Terminal Ground Signal High Low

Description : Draw construction of SCR using two transistor model. Explain its operation.

Answer : Two Transistor Model of SCR or Thyristor

Description : Draw the V-I characteristics of power transistor. 

Answer : V-I characteristics of power transistor:

Description : Describe thermal runaway of transistor and explain how it can be avoided.

Answer : Concept of thermal runaway:  1.We know that  IC = β IB + (1+ β) ICO  Where ICO is the leakage current and ICO is strongly dependent on temperature. 2. Leakage current approximately doubles for ...   Thermal runaway can be avoided by : 1) Using stabilization circuitry 2) Heat sink 

Description : Define α and β of the transistor. 

Answer : α: The ratio of collector current IC to emitter current IE for a constant collector to base voltage VCB in the CB configuration is called current gain alpha (α).   β : The ratio of collector ... a constant collector to emitter voltage VCE in the CE configuration is called current gain beta (β) .

Description : List various transistor biasing methods.

Answer : Types of biasing methods: i. Base bias (or fixed bias) ii. Base bias with emitter feedback. iii. Base bias with collector feedback iv. Voltage divider bias (or self bias) v. Emitter bias. 

Description : Transistor operating configurations

Answer : Transistor operating configurations

Description : Define junction field effect transistor (JFET) and give an example.

Answer : Junction Field-Effect Transistor: It is a semiconductor device having three terminals, namely Gate, Drain and Source, in which the current flow is controlled by an electric field set up by an external voltage applied ... : i) n-channel JFET and ii) p-channel JFET Examples of JFET: BFW 10, BFW 11 

Description : Define α & β and derive the relation between (α) &) (β) of transistor.

Answer : α : The ratio of output collector current IC to input emitter current IE in the CB configuration is called current gain alpha (α).  β : The ratio of output collector current IC to the input base current IB in the CE configuration is ... ( 1/β) + 1  hence 1/ α = (1+β )/ β  Therefore, α = β /(1+β)

Description : Define biasing of transistor

Answer : Biasing of transistor is the process that makes the base emitter junction of transistor always forward biased and collector junction reverse biased for achieving the faithful amplification .

Description : With neat diagram explain working of NPN transistor.

Answer : N-p-n transistor is made by sandwiching thin layer of p-type semiconductor between two layers of n-type semiconductor. It has three terminals - Emitter, Base and collector. The npn transistor has two ... up in the collector as it is more positive. In this way, current flows in the transistor.

Description : Draw and explain self-basing of a transistor.

Answer : Transistor Biasing is the process of setting a transistors DC operating voltage or current conditions to the correct level so that any AC input signal can be amplified correctly by the transistor. ExplanationIt ... Applying KVL to o/p loop , Collector-emitter voltage, VCE = VCC − IC RC

Description : Compare between CB , CE & CC transistor configuration.

Answer : Parameter CB CE CC I/P impedance Low Or 50Ω Medium Or 600Ωto 4kΩ High Or 1 MΩ Current Gain Less than or equal to 1 High Highest Voltage Gain Medium Medium Less ... k Ω to 50 k Ω Low Or 50 Ω Phase shift between input and output 0° 360° 0° 

Description : Why transistor is called as bipolar device.

Answer : BJT is called bipolar device because in BJT current conduction takes place due to majority as well as minority charge carriers that is because of electrons as well as holes.

Description : What is meant by distortion in amplifiers?

Description : ICB0 in a transistor can be reduced by reducing:  (1) IB (2) VCC (3) IE (4) Temperature

Answer : ICB0 in a transistor can be reduced by reducing: Temperature.

Description : Define Soil Stabilization. State any three points of necessary of soil stabilization.

Answer : Define: - Soil Stabilization is defined as improving the engineering performance of soil by artificial means. Necessity of Soil Stabilization : - 1. To increase the shear strength of soil. 2. To reduce ... of structures. 6. To increase the density of soil. 7. To reduce permeability of soil.

Description : State different methods of soil stabilization and explain any one

Answer : i) Mechanical stabilization - It is the process of improving properties of soil by changing its gradation. It depends on mechanical strength of aggregate, mineral composition etc Eg - Compaction at near ... help to drain water, increase strength, decrease mixing of soil, filters the water etc. 

Description : Write any four uses of Soil Stabilization. 

Answer : Uses of Soil Stabilization is as follows, 1. To increase the shear strength of soil. 2. To reduce construction cost by use of locally available material. 3. To improve stability of slopes. 4. ... settlement of structures. 6. To increase the density of soil. 7. To reduce permeability of soil. 

Description : Enlist any two the methods of soil stabilization.

Answer : Methods of soil stabilization: 1. Mechanical Stabilization 2. Lime Stabilization 3. Cement Stabilization 4.Bitumen Stabilization 5.Fly ash Stabilization 6.Stabilization by chemicals 7.Stabilization by heating 8. ... seven days. vi. Then the stabilized portion is allowed for its further use.  

Description : Define the following terms: (i) Stabilization (ii) Thermal runaway

Answer : Stabilization: The process of making operating point independent of temperature changes or variation in transistor parameter is known as stabilization. The maintenance of the operating point stable is called the ... happens, the device gets burnt out. This process is known as Thermal Runaway .

Description : What is meant by surface ignition in SI engine? 

Answer : Surface ignition: Surface ignition is the ignition of the fuel-air mixture by a hot spot on the combustion chamber walls such as on overheated valve or spark plug or glowing combustion Chamber ... and start propagates across the chamber in an analogous manner to what occurs in normal knock.

Description : What is meant by 5'S'? Explain each 'S' in details

Answer : 5 S' Concept:- 5'S is the name of a workplace organization methodology that uses a list of five Japanese words which are seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu and shitsuke constitute the system. ... Eliminate unwanted items. ➢ Maintain the discipline at work place ➢ Improved safety

Description : What is meant by grade contour? How it will be located in field? 

Answer : It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is termed as grade contour. Procedure for ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately. 

Description : What is meant by ‘Capital Gain’ ? (1) Part of profits added to the capital (2) Appreciation in the money value of assets (3) Additions to the capital invested in a business (4) None of these

Answer : Appreciation in the money value of assets

Description : What is meant by the term “midnight sun” ? (1) Twilight (2) Rising Sun (3) Very bright moon (4) Sun shining in the polar circle for long time

Answer : Sun shining in the polar circle for long time

Description : What is meant by pinch off voltage in MOSFET?

Description : What is meant by body effect in MOSFET?

Description : What is meant by feedback in electronics?

Description : What is meant by feeder in power system?

Answer : A feeder line is a peripheral route or branch in a network which connects smaller or more remote nodes with a route or branch carrying heavier traffic. The term is applicable to any system based on a hierarchical network.

Description : In the common–emitter transistor circuit, if the current gain is 100 and the collector current is 10 mA, the base current is: (1) 10 µA (2) 100 µA (3) 1 A (4) 10 A 

Answer : In the common–emitter transistor circuit, if the current gain is 100 and the collector current is 10 mA, the base current is: 100 µA

Description : In a transistor Colpitts oscillator, C1 = 0.001 µF, C2 = 0.01 µF and L = 5 µH. The frequency of oscillation in MHz will be (a) 2.37 MHz (b) 10.00 MHz (c) 11.54 MHz (d) 9.09 MHz 

Answer : c

Description : In a transistor  1. Emitter is heavily doped while the collector is moderately doped 2. Collector base junction is forward biased 3. Emitter is made wider than collector 4. The input resistance is much higher than output resistance 

Answer : In a transistor Emitter is heavily doped while the collector is moderately doped

Description : In an npn transistor, _____ are the minority carriers.   (a) Free electrons (b) Acceptor ions (c) Donor ions (d) Holes

Answer : In an npn transistor, Holes are the minority carriers.

Description : For a transistor, Ceb=20pF, Ccb=5pF, re=1kOhm. Its figure of merit (in MHz) is about  A) 65 B) 650 C) 130 D) 13 

Description : Maximum junction temperature and maximum ambient temperature of a power transistor (in degree Centigrade) are 150 and 52. The set level power dissipation is 32 watts, transistor thermal factor is 0.7 and of mica washer is 0.5.Thermal ... sink (in degree C/W) is  A) 1.8 B) 3.2 C) 6.4 D) 9.8

Description : In IC fabrication, the common form of PNP transistor is  A) Vertical PNP B) Lateral PNP C) Triple diffusion PNP D) Substrate PNP

Answer : In a transistor leakage current mainly depends on temperature.

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