Enlist the different modes of operation of electronic counters and explain any two modes in details.

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Description : With neat sketch explain four modes of operation of a TRIAC? 

Answer : Modes of operation of a TRIAC: There are four different operating modes of TRIAC:  1) MT2 and gate are positive with respect to terminal MT1(Mode1) : Here terminal MT2 is positive ... junction P2-N2 is forward biased, current carriers are injected and therefore, the TRIAC is turned on. 

Description : State the different modes of electron emission in metal. Explain any two modes of emission.

Answer : Different modes of electron emission in metal - 1. Thermionic emission 2. Photo electric emission. 3. Field emission. 4. Secondary emission. Mode of Emission  1. Thermionic emission. ... (GaP)  Application: Electron multiplier tubes, Special amplifying tubes, Computer memory tubes. 

Description : List out features of any four addressing modes of 8051.

Answer : 1.Immediate addressing mode: In this Immediate Addressing Mode, the data is provided in the instruction itself. The data is provided immediately after the opcode. These are some examples of Immediate Addressing Mode. MOVA ... us see some examples of this mode. MOV 0E5H, @R0 MOV @R1, 80H

Description : Explain the basic operation of an oscilloscope with necessary diagram for each section in detail.

Description : different types of errors occurs in measurement.

Answer : Generally errors are classified into three types: systematic errors, random errors and blunders. 1) Gross Errors 2) Random Errors 3) Systematic Errors Instrumental Errors Environmental ... to wrong observations or reading in the instruments particularly in case of energy meter reading. 

Description : operation of DSO with block diagram.

Answer : The input is amplified and attenuated with input amplifiers. The output of the input signal amplifiers feeds an analog to digital converter (ADC). There are numbers of ADC available. But the selection of ADC ... view the display on the CRT, the data from memory is reconstructed in analog form.

Description : operation of ramp type DVM.

Answer : This is given to an input comparator which will compare two signals and generates the output. One input to the input comparator is from the input and another input is from the ramp. This input voltage and ... ground and output is given. This output will stop the flow of purchase from clock

Description : operation of half wave rectifier type AC Voltmeter.

Answer :  Half-wave Rectifier Voltmeter The d'Arsonval meter movement only responds to the average or dc value of the current through the moving coil. In order to measure alternating ... ) input voltage signal alternating signal needs to be rectified first by using diode rectifier to produce 

Description :  operation of whetstone bridge. 

Answer : A Wheatstone bridge is widely used to measure the electrical resistance. This circuit is built with two known resistors, one unknown resistor and one variable resistor connected in the form of bridge. ... using a Wheatstone Bridge the unknown electrical resistance value can easily measure.

Description : The operation of a ramp type Digital Voltmeter is based on the principle of (A) Voltage-to-current conversion. (B) Voltage-to-time conversion. (C) Current-to-time conversion. (D) Current-to-frequency conversion.

Answer : The operation of a ramp type Digital Voltmeter is based on the principle of Voltage-to-time conversion.

Description : Describe the basic SHA operation with the help of its four mode specifications.

Answer : Sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA) is a unity gain amplifier with a mode control switch where the input of the amplifier is connected to a time-varying signal. A trigger pulse at the mode control switch ... but other forms, such as optical and mechanical forms, are possible. Also denoted S/H.

Description : State two types of Electronic dimmer.

Answer : Two types of electronic dimmers are: 1) S.C.R. operated dimmer 2) Triac operated dimmer 

Description : List different starting methods of three phase synchronous motor. Explain any one of them.

Answer : Different Starting Methods of Three Phase Synchronous Motor: As synchronous motor is not self starting, different methods of starting are as follows: 1) By using an Induction (Pony) motor 2) ... . The rotor gets pulled into synchronism and starts running at constant speed as a synchronous motor. 

Description : How are nuclear reactors controlled? Explain two different methods in brief.

Answer : Nuclear reactor is controlled using control rods: Control rods are made up of very high neutron absorbing material like boron, cadmium. By adjusting height of control rods on reactor core ... of nuclear reaction will increase. Whereas by pushing control rod towards the core it will reduce.

Description : Draw and describe working of electronic energy meter.

Answer : working of electronic energy meter:- 1. CT reduces current to reasonable value for current scaling network. 2. Voltage & current scaling networks reduce proportionally the voltage & ... The ADC converts the square wave frequency analog output to display the energy in watthour. 

Description : Describe the process of photo emission. State the application of photo emission in electronic components

Answer : Process of Photoemission:when light of appropriate frequency and intensity is incident upon a surface of certain materials,the energy of light is given to electrons to leave the surface of metal ... photo tubes are used in door openers,counters, position and temperature control and colour analysis 

Description : The first digital electronic computer was built in the year________  A. 1950 B. 1960 C. 1940 D. 1930

Answer : The first digital electronic computer was built in the year 1940 

Description : Power Electronic Devices

Description : Blackt Electrotech 230V 24x7 Energy Saving Socket Type Digital Programmable Plastic Electronic Timer (White)

Answer : Buy from amazon: Buy:

Description : Draw a block diagram of electronic energy meter. Write function of each block.

Answer : Electronic Energymeter  Functions of components/blocks: - CT reduces current to reasonable value for current scaling network. - Voltage & current scaling networks reduce proportionally the voltage ... ADC converts the square wave frequency analog output to display the energy in watthour.

Description : What are the types of electronic communication?

Description : What is the definition of electronic communication?

Description : What is Electronic Systems Engineering?

Description : What is electronic circuit design?

Description : What is an electronic controller?

Description : What is an electronic design?

Description : Electronic Counter

Answer : Electronic Counter Electronic counter counts the number of pulses in a given time. Electronic counter is made from cascade flip-flops. It is use to store or display counting. Some counter is use ... BCD counter counts from 0000 (0) to 1001 (9). Johnson counter is the twisted ring counter.

Description : Enlist different unit operations. Explain any one in details

Answer : Different unit operations: 1. Size reduction 2. Size separation or screening 3. Mixing 4. Filtration 5. Sedimentation 6. Extraction 7. Distillation 8. Drying 9. Crystallization 10 ... the solid phase to the gas phase. Usually a solid or nearly solid materials are processed in dryer.

Answer : If two sinusoids of the same frequency but of different amplitudes and phase angles are subtracted, the resultant is a sinusoid of the same frequency.

Description : Draw and explain integrated duration curve used in system operation. 

Answer : Diagram of integrated duration curve used in system operation: Explanation:  Integrated duration curve is obtained from load duration curve. It is drawn in between load on Y-axis in KW/MW and the X- ... a particular time of a day can also be shown on a curve which is called as mass curve. 

Description : A four -quadrant operation requires two full converters connected in  (1) Series (3) Back to back (2) Parallel (4) Series Cascade

Answer : A four-quadrant operation requires two full converters connected in Parallel 

Description : Explain different gate drives techniques with base circuits and key features.

Description : Draw diagram of class A push-pull amplifier and explain its operation. 

Answer : Class A Push-pull Amplifier: The circuit diagram of class A push-pull amplifier is as shown in the fig.(a). Operation: The resistors R1 and R2 along with Vcc provide the dc biasing so as ... Vcc is applied to the collectors of transistors Q1 and Q2 through the centretapped output transformer. 

Description : What is photodiode? Draw the symbol and explain operation of photodiode. 

Answer : A photodiode is a light detector that converts light into an electrical current. A photodiode is a semi-conductor device, with a p-n junction and an intrinsic layer between p and n layers ... current is independent of reverse bias voltage. Reverse current is mostly depends on the light intensity.

Description : Explain the series and parallel operation of MOSFET. Which is suitable and why?

Answer : Series operation of MOSFET: To increase voltage handling capability MOSFETs are connected in series. When the MOSFETs are connected in series each MOSFET should turn on and turn off ... on and turn off time and transconductance. Each MOSFET should share current equally.  

Answer : For the parallel operation of two or more D.C. compound generators, we should ensure that series fields of all generators should be either on positive side or negative side of the armature.

Description : List the different errors in wattmeter & explain compensation for it.

Answer : Errors in Wattmeter Compensation method Error due to connection method To overcome this error, wattmeters are provided with additional compensating winding which is connected in series with ... due to friction The weight of moving system be reduced to minimum possible.

Description : What is PLL? Explain its operation with a block diagram.

Answer : PLL - A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal Block diagram  ... to the input frequency. The phase - locked loop goes through three states free running capture and phase lock.

Description : Draw & explain operation of phase detector.

Answer : In phase detector, the op-Amp basically acts as a zero crossing detector. If a sine wave is applied at the i/p, we get square wave at the op-Amp o/p (at point ... to two channel of the CRO. The time duration between the pulses corresponding to voltages represent the phase between them. 

Description : Explain the operation of UPS with a neat block diagram.

Answer : Uninterruptible-Power-Supplies (UPS): A block diagram of UPS system is shown in figure. It essentially consists of four major components: i)Rectifier (or battery charger) ii) ... . Due to fast action requirement, transfer switch can be implemented by fast acting semiconductor devices.

Description : Explain the operation of advanced gas cooled reactor.

Answer : Operation:- Carbon dioxide or Helium is the gas used for transferring the heat produced form the reactor core to the Heat exchanger. The gas is pumped through the reactor core at high pressure. In heat ... The AGR was designed to have a high thermal efficiency 40 %. Steam pressure is 162 Kg/cm2 

Description : Also, highlight the problem faced during parallel operation.

Answer : Parallel operation of IGBT: Parallel operation of IGBT is done for obtaining high current rating. Paralleling of IGBT reduces conduction losses and thermal stress. IGBT combines the qualities of ... . IGBTs must share losses equally otherwise IGBT may get failure due to thermal differences.

Description : Name the different torque and their function in measuring instrument.

Answer : List of torques in analog instruments:  1. Deflecting torque  2. Controlling / restraining torque.  3. Damping torque.  1. Deflecting torque:  - To create deflection of pointer ... .  - Bring the pointer to standstill quickly.  - To minimize oscillations about final position. 

Description : State the different types of outdoor flood lighting and where are they used.

Answer : There are three types of projectors used for flood lighting :  a) Narrow beam Projector b) Medium angle Projector c) Wide angle Projector a) Narrow beam Projectors: - Light beam with such ... yards, stadiums, car parking area etc. 3) It is used for illuminating advertisements, boarding's etc.

Description : State different types of electrical signal and draw all types of waveforms.

Answer : Types of electrical signals 1) Sine wave 2) Triangular wave 3) Square wave Waveforms

Description : Describe different RT level computational and sequential components used to design single function processors.

Answer : RT-level combinational components:- To reduce the complexity in digital logic, combinational components are used, which are more powerful than logic gates.  Such combinational ... during a clock edge. An asynchronous inputs value effects the circuit independent of the clock.

Description : State different types of holders used in wiring installation.

Answer : Following types of holders used in wiring installation: 1. Pendent Holder 2. Batten Holder 3. Angle holder 4. Screwed holder 

Description : List different torques in synchronous motor. 

Answer : Different Torques in Synchronous Motor: 1) Starting torque 2) Running torque 3) Pull-in torque 4) Pull-out torque

Description : State the different methods of Power Generation adopted in India. 

Answer : 1. Hydro energy or hydro Electric power plant  2. Nuclear energy or nuclear Power Plant  3. Fossil fuels: i) Thermal energy (by combustion of coal) or Thermal Power Plant ii) Natural gas ... from any organic waste materials. It contains mixture of methane(50-65 % in volume) and carbon dioxide

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