Explain the basic operation of an oscilloscope with necessary diagram for each section in detail.

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Description : Describe the basic SHA operation with the help of its four mode specifications.

Answer : Sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA) is a unity gain amplifier with a mode control switch where the input of the amplifier is connected to a time-varying signal. A trigger pulse at the mode control switch ... but other forms, such as optical and mechanical forms, are possible. Also denoted S/H.

Description : operation of DSO with block diagram.

Answer : The input is amplified and attenuated with input amplifiers. The output of the input signal amplifiers feeds an analog to digital converter (ADC). There are numbers of ADC available. But the selection of ADC ... view the display on the CRT, the data from memory is reconstructed in analog form.

Description : What is PLL? Explain its operation with a block diagram.

Answer : PLL - A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal Block diagram  ... to the input frequency. The phase - locked loop goes through three states free running capture and phase lock.

Description : Describe principle of operation of Doppler type ultrasonic flow meter with diagram. 

Answer : Diagram: Working:  The flow meter consists of a crystal transducer mounted outside the pipe in which flow is to be measured. This transducer is a piezoelectric crystal which ... , so the frequency of the reflected wave is shifted to particle velocity, according to Doppler principle.

Description : What is digital storage oscilloscope (DSO)?

Answer : Digital storage oscilloscope have many advantages as compared to analogue oscilloscope. Digital storage oscilloscope uses analogue to digital converter and digital to analogue converter and also it ... oscilloscope is used for comparing waveforms and recording and it have many different uses.

Description : Oscilloscope

Answer : Oscilloscope

Description : Compare analog CRO with digital storage oscilloscope (DSO).

Answer : Analog CRO DSO 1 High bandwidth Less bandwidth due to aliasing effect 2 High  writing speed about 15 GHz Limited speed 3 No memory Has memory ... Less storage time. The digital oscilloscope is  capable of an infinite storage time, using its digital memory.

Description : Enlist the different modes of operation of electronic counters and explain any two modes in details.

Description : Use Dual Trace Oscilloscope to Determine A.C Voltage and Current Response in Given R, L, C Circuit.

Answer : Practical Significance In the industry environment Electrical Engineering Diploma graduate are expected to handle cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) to measure basic parameters like voltage, frequency, time ... components and emphasize a quantity, lagging or leading with respect to other quantity.

Description : The time base signal in Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is  (1) A square wave signal (2) A sawtooth signal (3) A triangular wave signal (4) A sinusoidal signal

Answer : 2 Saw tooth 

Answer : Necessary conditions required to be satisfied in order to ensure successful parallel operation of single phase transformers:  1. Only transformers having the same phase displacement between primary and secondary ... . 7. The phase sequence must be followed strictly on HV and LV side connection.

Description : Explain the operation of UPS with a neat block diagram.

Answer : Uninterruptible-Power-Supplies (UPS): A block diagram of UPS system is shown in figure. It essentially consists of four major components: i)Rectifier (or battery charger) ii) ... . Due to fast action requirement, transfer switch can be implemented by fast acting semiconductor devices.

Description : Draw the block diagram of basic wind energy conversion system and write function of each block. 

Answer : Block diagram of basic wind energy conversion system: OR Components of wind power plant and their functions:  1) Rotor /Blade/Aero-turbine: Blade extracts significant power from the ... stronger and smoother. Towers are supports to raise the main part of the turbine up in the air.

Description : operation of ramp type DVM.

Answer : This is given to an input comparator which will compare two signals and generates the output. One input to the input comparator is from the input and another input is from the ramp. This input voltage and ... ground and output is given. This output will stop the flow of purchase from clock

Description : operation of half wave rectifier type AC Voltmeter.

Answer :  Half-wave Rectifier Voltmeter The d'Arsonval meter movement only responds to the average or dc value of the current through the moving coil. In order to measure alternating ... ) input voltage signal alternating signal needs to be rectified first by using diode rectifier to produce 

Description :  operation of whetstone bridge. 

Answer : A Wheatstone bridge is widely used to measure the electrical resistance. This circuit is built with two known resistors, one unknown resistor and one variable resistor connected in the form of bridge. ... using a Wheatstone Bridge the unknown electrical resistance value can easily measure.

Description : The operation of a ramp type Digital Voltmeter is based on the principle of (A) Voltage-to-current conversion. (B) Voltage-to-time conversion. (C) Current-to-time conversion. (D) Current-to-frequency conversion.

Answer : The operation of a ramp type Digital Voltmeter is based on the principle of Voltage-to-time conversion.

Description : Draw diagram of class A push-pull amplifier and explain its operation. 

Answer : Class A Push-pull Amplifier: The circuit diagram of class A push-pull amplifier is as shown in the fig.(a). Operation: The resistors R1 and R2 along with Vcc provide the dc biasing so as ... Vcc is applied to the collectors of transistors Q1 and Q2 through the centretapped output transformer. 

Description : Explain Kirchhoff’s Law with its mathematical expression in detail.

Answer : Kirchoff's law of radiation: Kirchoff's law: It states that at equilibrium temperature, the ratio of total emissive power of any body to absorptivity depends only upon the temperature of the body. ... respectively. At thermal equilibrium, absorption and emission rates are equal, thus,

Description : Describe the operation of N channel enhancement type MOSFET with diagram.

Answer : As its name indicates, this MOSFET operates only in the enhancement mode and has no depletion mode. It operates with large positive gate voltage only. It does not conduct when the ... of charge carriers attracted to the positive gate. Thus drain current is controlled by the gate potential.

Description : block diagram of logic analyzer.

Answer : A logic analyzer can be triggered on a complicated sequence of digital events, then capture a large amount of digital data from the system under test (SUT).When logic analysers first came ... Once the data are captured, they can be displayed several ways, from the simple) to the complex 

Description : Draw the labeled block diagram of process control system and explain each block.

Answer : Explanation - Process control system consists of process or plant, sensor, error detector, automatic Controller, actuator or control element. 1) Process or plant- process means some manufacturing sequence ... process which changes the process variable. Output of this block is denoted by u .

Description : Draw the block diagram of regulated power supply, explain function of each block and draw waveforms of each stage.

Answer : 1. A step down transformer 2. A rectifier 3. A filter 4. A regulator Operation of Regulated Power Supply:- Step Down Transformer:- A step down transformer will ... regulator. A regulator will maintain the output constant even when changes at the input or any other changes occur.

Description : Draw block diagram of PLL as a FM demodulator. Explain function of each block.

Answer : Operation:  The FM signal which is to be demodulated is applied at the input of the PLL.  the PLL is locked to the FM  The error voltage produced at ... using PLL ensures a high Linearity, between the instantaneous input frequency and VCO control voltage (error amplifier output)

Description : 1.Determine the permeability of magnetic material by plotting its BH curve 2. Measure voltage, current and power in 1-phase circuit with resistive load. 3. Measure voltage, current and ... .Make Star and Delta connection in induction motor starters and measure the line and phase values.

Answer : Practical no. 6 Aim: Make Star and Delta connection in induction motor starters and measure the line and phase values. Apparatus required:  voltmeter, ammeter, induction motor Circuit diagram ... Result: Hence we have measured the line and phase value of star and delta connection.

Description : With neat sketch explain four modes of operation of a TRIAC? 

Answer : Modes of operation of a TRIAC: There are four different operating modes of TRIAC:  1) MT2 and gate are positive with respect to terminal MT1(Mode1) : Here terminal MT2 is positive ... junction P2-N2 is forward biased, current carriers are injected and therefore, the TRIAC is turned on. 

Answer : In a circuit breaker the basic problem is to transmit large power.

Description : Basic Circuit Elements Symbols

Answer : Basic Circuit Elements Symbols

Description : Numbers Basic Math Review

Description : Basic Circuit Elements

Answer : Resistance ,current,voltage

Description : Basic idea of generation 

Answer : Prior to the discovery of Faraday's Laws of electromagnetic discussion, electrical power was available from batteries with limited voltage and current levels. Although complicated in construction, D ... Therefore, area specific generating stations along with its distribution networks had to be used.

Description : What are the basic requirements of locating wind power plant ?

Answer : The basic requirements of locating wind power plant:  1) The site should be selected where winds are strong i.e. where pressure of wind is high and there is continuity. 2) Wind pressure ... the turbine which can affect the system's overall performance. 10)Possibility to connect to power grid. 

Description : Electrical quantities (symbol and basic unit)

Answer : Electrical quantities (symbol and basic unit)

Description : Basic SI units

Answer : Basic SI units

Description : What is the basic use of capacitor?

Description : What is the basic function of a capacitor?

Description : What are the four basic welding positions?

Description : What are the basic laws of physics?

Description : What is basic insulation level?

Description : basic gate drive circuit of GTO

Answer : basic gate drive circuit of GTO

Description : An additional condition for parallel operation of three-phase transformers over single-phase transformers is that

Answer : An additional condition for parallel operation of three-phase transformers over single-phase transformers is that the transformers should belong to the same vector group

Description : With a neat diagram explain the construction of calendria type evaporator.

Answer : Calendria type(Short tube) evaporator: Construction: It consists of vertical cylindrical shell incorporating short vertical tube bundle with horizontal tube sheet. Vapour inlet is provided at top ... sheet, while non condensable gas is vented to atmosphere from point near top tube sheet.

Description : Draw and explain integrated duration curve used in system operation. 

Answer : Diagram of integrated duration curve used in system operation: Explanation:  Integrated duration curve is obtained from load duration curve. It is drawn in between load on Y-axis in KW/MW and the X- ... a particular time of a day can also be shown on a curve which is called as mass curve. 

Description : Draw & explain operation of phase detector.

Answer : In phase detector, the op-Amp basically acts as a zero crossing detector. If a sine wave is applied at the i/p, we get square wave at the op-Amp o/p (at point ... to two channel of the CRO. The time duration between the pulses corresponding to voltages represent the phase between them. 

Description : Explain the operation of advanced gas cooled reactor.

Answer : Operation:- Carbon dioxide or Helium is the gas used for transferring the heat produced form the reactor core to the Heat exchanger. The gas is pumped through the reactor core at high pressure. In heat ... The AGR was designed to have a high thermal efficiency 40 %. Steam pressure is 162 Kg/cm2 

Description : What is photodiode? Draw the symbol and explain operation of photodiode. 

Answer : A photodiode is a light detector that converts light into an electrical current. A photodiode is a semi-conductor device, with a p-n junction and an intrinsic layer between p and n layers ... current is independent of reverse bias voltage. Reverse current is mostly depends on the light intensity.

Description : Explain the series and parallel operation of MOSFET. Which is suitable and why?

Answer : Series operation of MOSFET: To increase voltage handling capability MOSFETs are connected in series. When the MOSFETs are connected in series each MOSFET should turn on and turn off ... on and turn off time and transconductance. Each MOSFET should share current equally.  

Description : Also, highlight the problem faced during parallel operation.

Answer : Parallel operation of IGBT: Parallel operation of IGBT is done for obtaining high current rating. Paralleling of IGBT reduces conduction losses and thermal stress. IGBT combines the qualities of ... . IGBTs must share losses equally otherwise IGBT may get failure due to thermal differences.

Description : Draw a block diagram of electronic energy meter. Write function of each block.

Answer : Electronic Energymeter  Functions of components/blocks: - CT reduces current to reasonable value for current scaling network. - Voltage & current scaling networks reduce proportionally the voltage ... ADC converts the square wave frequency analog output to display the energy in watthour.

Description : Draw block diagram of CRO. Write function of each block.

Answer : 1. Vertical amplifier strengthens the input signal applied to vertical depleting plates 2. Trigger circuit gives input to time base circuit 3. The output of time base generator is amplified by ... of CRT internally coated with Phosphors material on which we observe waveform of the input signal.

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