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Discuss DAC architectures based on resistor ladders.

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Description : Define ADC and DAC. Write two applications of each.

Answer : ADC An analog to digital converter (ADC), converts any analog signal into quantifiable data, which makes it easier to process and store, as well as more accurate and reliable by ... signal, hence any analog circuit can work with digital system Application - Microcontroller, washing machine

Description : What is the need of data converters? List specifications of DAC.

Answer : Need of data converters:  It is often necessary that before processing the analog data, by a digital system, it should be changed to an equivalent digital form. Similarly, after processing the data, it ... 4. Temperature sensitivity 5. Settling time 6. Speed 7. Long term Drift 8. Supply rejection

Description : Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)

Answer : Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) Digital means binary (1 0) and 1 and 0 may be true and false or on and off or high and low. Analog means continuous signal or information ... wave. Phase Shift Keying (PSK) is transmit digital data by changing the phase of carrier wave.

Description : State the applications and specification of (i) Resistor (ii) Capacitor (iii)Inductor

Answer : Application of resistor: 1.Resistors are used in high frequency instrument. 2.Resistor is used in power control circuit. 3.It is used in DC power supplies. 4.Resistors are used ... DC Current  3.Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)  4.Magnetic Saturation Flux Density  5.Curie Temperature 

Description : Define resistor and draw symbol of variable resistor.

Answer : Resistor: A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Symbol of variable resistor:   

Description : Find the current through 4 ohm resistor by source transformation

Description : Source transformation Replace the circuit with voltage source in series with a single resistor

Answer : Source transformation Replace the circuit with voltage source in series with a single resistor

Description : Find current through resistor using nodal analysis

Answer : Find current through resistor using nodal analysis

Description : Which is more temperature stable, a carbon-composition or a metal-film resistor? 

Description : Which of the following is NOT a non-linear resistor? A) Varistor B) Precision resistor C) NTC thermistor D) PTC thermistor 

Answer : Which of the following is NOT a non-linear resistor? A) Varistor B) Precision resistor C) NTC thermistor D) PTC thermistor 

Description :  A resistor in which the resistance changes exponentially with change in temperature is called as A) Potentiometer B) Phototransistor C) Varactor D) Thermistor 

Answer :  A resistor in which the resistance changes exponentially with change in temperature is called as Thermistor 

Description : A 1000Ohm, 1 Watt resistor can safely pass a current of

Answer : A 1000 Ohm, 1 Watt resistor can safely pass a current of 30 mA

Description : In a 5 bit weighted resistor D/A converters, the resistor value corresponding to LSB is 40 kΩ, and the resistor value corresponding to MSB will be (A) 0.4 kΩ (B) 3 kΩ (C) 2.8 kΩ (D) 2.5 kΩ

Answer : In a 5 bit weighted resistor D/A converters, the resistor value corresponding to LSB is 40 kΩ, and the resistor value corresponding to MSB will be 2.5 kΩ 

Description : An open resistor, when checked with an ohm-meter reads?

Answer : An open resistor, when checked with an ohm-meter reads infinite.

Answer : Standard resistor is made from maganin.

Description : Can a supernode contain a resistor?

Description : The operation of a ramp type Digital Voltmeter is based on the principle of (A) Voltage-to-current conversion. (B) Voltage-to-time conversion. (C) Current-to-time conversion. (D) Current-to-frequency conversion.

Answer : The operation of a ramp type Digital Voltmeter is based on the principle of Voltage-to-time conversion.

Description : In a weighted-resistor digital-to-analog converter with 8-bit input, if the resistance corresponding to the MSB is 2K, what will be the resistance corresponding to the LSB?  (a) 250 Ω (d) 512 KΩ (c) 256 KΩ (d) 25.5 Ω

Answer : In a weighted-resistor digital-to-analog converter with 8-bit input, if the resistance corresponding to the MSB is 2K, what will be the resistance corresponding to the LSB?  (a) 250 Ω (d) 512 KΩ (c) 256 KΩ (d) 25.5 Ω

Description : Draw and explain the interfacing of DAC to 8051.

Answer : Diagram:  * Microcontroller generates output which is in digital form but many controlling system requires analog signal as they don't accept digital data thus making it necessary to use DAC ... current. Hence we require an I to V converter to convert this current into equivalent voltage. 

Description : With the help of a neat circuit diagram explain the working principle of Digital to Analog converters.(DAC)

Answer : Digital-to-Analog Converters:  D/A conversion is the process of converting a value represented in digital code such as binary or BCD into a voltage or current which is proportional ... total of input voltage levels which represents the equivalent analog signals of the 4-bit digital input.

Description : A 4-bit R/2R digital-to-analog (DAC) converter has a reference of 5 volts. What is the analog output for the input code 1010:  (1) 0.3125 V (2) 3.125 V (3) 0.78125 V (4) –3.125 V

Answer : A 4-bit R/2R digital-to-analog (DAC) converter has a reference of 5 volts. 3.125 V is the analog output for the input code 1010.

Description : For an 8 bit DAC, reference voltage is 10 V. If input to DAC starting from MSB is 10111100, output (in volts) is  A) 5.8 B) 6.4 C) 7.3 D) 8.2

Description : Discuss the drawbacks of carbureted SI engine on the base of, Air-fuel ratio, fuel consumption, power output, emission. 

Answer : 1) Air-fuel ratio: - As in SI engine Air-fuel ratio varies from 8:1 to 18.5:1 i.e. from 8 kg of air/kg of fuel to 18.5 kg of air/kg of fuel. Richer or leaner air-fuel ratio limit causes the engine to ... 8 kg of air/kg of fuel to 18.5 kg of air/kg of fuel. So emission is more in SI engine.

Description : Conference is a Options: A) Provision to discuss on serious matters B) Adequate solution of research problems C) Wider manipulation of research inferences D) All of the above

Answer : D) All of the above 

Description : A workshop is (A) a conference for discussion on a topic (B) a meeting for discussion on a topic. (C) a class at a college or a university in which a teacher and the students ... intensive course for a small group emphasizing the development of a skill or technique for solving a specific problem.

Answer : (D) a brief intensive course for a small group emphasizing the development of a skill or technique for solving a specific problem. 

Description : What are patents ? Briefly describe the various requirements and the process of award of a patent. Discuss the pros and cons of patenting life forms. What is the status of India ... ? Also write your views on effects of patenting on commercialization of biotechnological products, with justification.

Description : Discuss the effect of transmission line parameters on the performance of transmission line .

Answer : Following are the effect on performance of transmission line:  1. Due to resistance (R), voltage drop in transmission line produces 2. Due to resistance (R), copper losses in ... voltage regulation of transmission line gets affected 7. Also power factor of transmission line gets affected

Description : Two sinusoidal signals of the same frequency are displayed on a dual-trace oscilloscope. One complete cycle of each signal covers 6 cm of the horizontal scale and the starting point of the horizontal scale and the starting ... between the two signals in degrees is  (a) 30 (b) 45 (c) 60 (d) 90

Answer : Two sinusoidal signals of the same frequency are displayed on a dual-trace oscilloscope. One complete cycle of each signal covers 6 cm of the horizontal scale and the starting point of the horizontal ... signals are separated by 0.5 cm. The phase difference between the two signals in degrees is 30

Description : The trace on an oscilloscope continually moves to the right of the screen when  (a) the sweep is triggered. (b) the sweep period is larger than the signal period. (c) the sweep period is smaller than the signal period. (d) there is no weep.

Answer : The trace on an oscilloscope continually moves to the right of the screen when the sweep period is smaller than the signal period. 

Description : The vertical deflection of an electron beam on the screen of a CRO is measured to be 8 mm. Now, the potential difference between the Y-plates is doubled, and simultaneously the pre-accelerating anode voltage is reduced to half of ... on the screen would become (A) 64 mm (B) 32 mm (C) 8 mm (D) 1 mm

Answer : The vertical deflection of an electron beam on the screen of a CRO is measured to be 8 mm. Now, the potential difference between the Y-plates is doubled, and simultaneously the pre-accelerating ... of its previous value. Then, the vertical deflection of the beam on the screen would become 32 mm

Description : Write short notes on:  1) Phosphor characteristics  2) Liquid crystal display

Answer : ADC-Amplifier interface: In most data acquisition system analog to digital converter (ADC) is interfaced with the amplifier. There are different interface architectural schemes. Operational ... . The interaction between analog to digital converter and amplifier affects the system performance.

Description : A transformer has a turns ratio of two to one. If a 100 ohm resistor is connected on the high side, its resistance as measured on the low side would be: w) 25 ohms x) 50 ohms y) 100 ohms z) 400 ohms

Answer : ANSWER: W -- 25 OHMS

Description : An LED is operated on a 12 volt automobile circuit. The voltage drop across the LED is 2 volts and the current must be limited to 50 milliamps to prevent its overheating and destruction. What size resistor must be used? w) 60 ohms x) 100 ohms y) 120 ohms z) 200 ohms

Answer : ANSWER: Z -- 200 OHMS

Description : The colour bands on a carbon composition resistor occur in the sequence: yellow, violet, yellow and silver. Its resistance is  (a) 470 KΩ ± 47 KΩ (b) 470 KΩ ± 23.5 % (c) 47 KΩ ± 10 % (d) 47 KΩ ± 5 %

Answer : The colour bands on a carbon composition resistor occur in the sequence: yellow, violet, yellow and silver. Its resistance is 47 KΩ ± 10 %

Description : What are the color codes on a resistor?

Answer : black   yellow   gold    red     green     blue

Description : Filtering of packets by firewall based on a router has facilities to a. i, iii b. i, ii, iii c. i, ii, iii, iv d. ii, iii, iv

Answer : b. i, ii, iii 

Description : By Electronic Commerce we mean: a. Commerce of electronic goods b. Commerce which depends on electronics c. Commerce which is based on the use of internet d. Commerce which is based on transactions using computers connected by telecommunication network

Answer : d. Commerce which is based on transactions using computers connected by telecommunication network

Description : Explain various types of tiles based on their use 

Answer : 1. Natural tile: These types of tiles are produced from natural materials that are quarried, finished and cut to size. Common types of stones used as flooring tiles include granite, marble, ... acquire the desire print or colour after manufacturing. They are famous inthe name of galicha tiles. 

Description : In the past, the method for expressing an opinion has been to frame a ____ question based on available factual evidence. A. Hypothetical B. Nested C. Challenging D. Contradictory

Answer : A. Hypothetical  

Description :  ___ is an open source electronic platform based on easy to used hardware and software. A. Arduino B. Uno C. Raspberry Pi D. Node

Answer : A. Arduino 

Description : Zigbee specification are based on ______. A. 802.3 B. 802.11 C. 802.16 D. 802.15.4

Answer : D. 802.15.4 

Description : MQTT is: A. Based on client-server architecture B. Based on publish-subscribe architecture C. Based on both of the above D. Based on none of the above

Answer : B. Based on publish-subscribe architecture 

Description : Classifying email as a spam, labeling webpages based on their content, voice recognition are the example of _____. A. Supervised learning B. Unsupervised learning C. Machine learning D. Deep learning

Answer : A. Supervised learning 

Description : State the classification of surveying based on nature of field. 

Answer : a) Land surveying b) Marine or Navigation surveying c) Astronomical surveying

Description : List different types of tapes based on material of which they are made.

Answer : 1) Cloth or Linen tape 2) Metallic Tape 3) Steel Tape 4) Invar Tape 5) Fiber Glass wired Tape

Description : State the classification of survey based on object of survey.

Answer : Classification of survey based on object of survey - When surveying is carried out for special purpose then survey is classified based on purpose or objective as follows - 1. Geological ... geographic information in the form of digital geo databases and traditional topographic air and marine maps.

Description : Describe various types of symmetry of flower based on the arrangement of floral parts.

Answer : Ans: On the basis of this character, floral symmetry is of the following three types. I. Spiral : The free sepals, petals, stamens and carpels are arranged spirally over the conical or convex ... Cyclic: All the four floral parts are arranged in cycles over the thalamus. Ex: Hibiscus, Datura

Description : State the two uses of survey based on geodetic surveying

Answer : Two uses of survey based on geodetic surveying:- i) To determine the precise position s on the surface of the earth. ii) Preparation of maps of large area like map of a country, state ... ) Establishment of GTS bench Marks across the country. iv) Preparation of military maps for defense purposes.

Description : State the classification of surveys based on i) The nature of the field of survey. ii) The object of survey. 

Answer : i)The nature of the field of survey.  1.Land surveying.  2.Marine surveying or Hydrographic surveying.  3.Astronomical surveying.  ii) The object of survey. 1.Geological surveying. 2.Mine surveying. 3.Archaeological surveying. 4. Military surveying. 5. Engineeringsurveying.

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