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Describe the various blocks and their functions in pipelined ADC architecture.
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Description :

State the various lighting calculations methods and Describe any one of them.

Answer :

Lighting calculation methods: 1. Lumens or Light flux method 2. Point to point or Inverse Square law method 3. Watts per Square meter method i) Lumens or Light ... is taken according to the illumination desired on an average value considering overall efficiency of the lighting system.

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Description :

Which type of ADC gives high resolution?

Answer :

Sigma Delta, successive approximation and integrating type analogue to digital converter gives very high resolution but they have slower speed.

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Description :

The ADC having highest conversion speed is (A) Dual-slope ADC (B) Successive approximation ADC (C) Flash ADC (D) Servo ADC

Answer :

The ADC having highest conVersion speed is Flash ADC

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Description :

Answer :

ADC-Amplifier interface: In most data acquisition system analog to digital converter (ADC) is interfaced with the amplifier. There are different interface architectural schemes. Operational ... . The interaction between analog to digital converter and amplifier affects the system performance.

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Description :

Integrating or Dual Slope ADC

Answer :

Operation: At the start of measurement the counter is reset to zero. So output of flip-flop is zero. This is applied to the switch control. The switch control now connects input voltage (Vin) to ... Then the data from counter is passed to the digital readout for display purpose.

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List and explain the various functions supported by Linux/RTLinux.

Answer :

Various functions of RTLinux is as follows: Interrupt handling functions

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Description :

Write the syntax of entity and architecture used in VHDL and explain it.

Answer :

Entity declaration: It defines the names. Input output signals and modes of a hardware module. Also it provides the external interface of an entity. It is a black box view. Syntax ... _name of entity_ name  Architecture_ declaration_ name;  begin  Statement;  end architecture_ name;

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What do you mean by Computer Architecture and Organization?

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Describe the basic SHA operation with the help of its four mode specifications.

Answer :

Sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA) is a unity gain amplifier with a mode control switch where the input of the amplifier is connected to a time-varying signal. A trigger pulse at the mode control switch ... but other forms, such as optical and mechanical forms, are possible. Also denoted S/H.

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Description :

Describe the functions of General purpose registers of 8086 microprocessor.

Answer :

(i) General Purpose Registers of 8086 1. AX (Accumulator) - Used to store the result for arithmetic / logical operations All I/O data transfer using IN & OUT instructions use A ... Index - acts as the destination for string movement instructions Used to hold offset address of Extra segment.

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State feature of 4G wireless Architecture

Answer :

Features of 4G: 1.Faster and more reliable data rates than 100 Mb/s 2. It has a Low cost in comparison to other generations (1G, 2G, 3G networks) 3. It supports Bluetooth, Wi ... packet-switched networks. 7. They have high internet speeds. 8. Provide global mobility and service portability.

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Linux Kernel Architecture

Answer :

Linux Kernel Architecture: The kernel is a layer between Linux OS and hardware. When Linux is running in main memory it is divided into two parts one is user space and second is kernel space. 1.User Space 2.Kernel Space

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Description :

Define ADC and DAC. Write two applications of each.

Answer :

ADC An analog to digital converter (ADC), converts any analog signal into quantifiable data, which makes it easier to process and store, as well as more accurate and reliable by ... signal, hence any analog circuit can work with digital system Application - Microcontroller, washing machine

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Description :

The number of comparators required in a 4 bit comparator type ADC is (A) 16 (B) 15 (C) 17 (D) 12

Answer :

The number of comparators required in a 4 bit comparator type ADC is 15

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Description :

Enlist the luminaries used in factory lighting and lux level required in various areas.

Answer :

Area Luminaries Lux level Office building Fluorescent tube, LED, CFL 500 lux Testing centre Fluorescent tube, LED, CFL 400 to 500 lux Workshop/work place Halogen ... , LED, CFL, Projector lamp, filament lamp, Halogen Lamp, Metal Halide lamp etc Above 600 Lux

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Description :

What is Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) ?

Answer :

Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)  Analog quantity may be voltage, temperature, sound, speed, audio etc. it is information or signal. ... digital form), digital speedometer (converts analog speed into digital form) etc.

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Description :

Flash or Parallel ADC

Answer :

Flash or Parallel ADC

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Description :

State various effects of electric current and explain any one.

Answer :

Effects of Electric Current:  1. Magnetic Effect: When a current is passed through a conductor, magnetic field is produced round the conductor. Due to this field when current carrying ... The rise in temperature is converted into elongation of hot wire element causes displacement of pointer. 

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Description :

Define armature reaction in an alternator. Explain the effect of armature reaction at various P.F. of loads of alternator.

Answer :

Armature Reaction: The effect of armature flux on main flux is called as armature reaction.  Armature Reaction at Various Power Factors: When armature is loaded, the armature flux modifies ... lagging p.f. For capacitive loads the effect of flux is partly distorting and partly strengthening.

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Explain the various steps involved in designing a custom single-purpose processor.

Answer :

A single purpose processor is a digital circuit designed to execute exactly one program. It is also known as co-processor, accelerator or peripheral. It contains only ... for small quantities. Performance may not match general-purpose processors for same applications.

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State the selection criterion of the lamp for various purposes.

Answer :

Selection criterion of the lamp for various purposes:  While selecting a lamp for a particular purpose, the available lamps are compared on the basis of following criteria: * Light output ... such as ballasts * Compatibility with the electrical system * Suitability for the operating environment

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Which is the fastest type of analogue to digital converter?

Answer :

Flash converter is the fastest type of analogue to digital converter (ADC).

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State the functions of fuel system and exhaust system of a diesel power station.

Answer :

Fuel system: It supplies fuel to engine for combustion purpose. It consists of Fuel Pump: - It supplies fuel to engine for combustion purpose. Strainer: - Are provided to remove suspended impurities and ... most of the noise. Chimney:- To exhaust gases in the atmosphere as high as possible. 

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Description :

Express the following functions in cosine form

Answer :

Express the following functions in cosine form

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Write the functions of re-heater in steam plant.

Answer :

Functions of re-heater:- In Re-heater temperature of exhausted steam from HP turbine is increased by passing exhausted steam again to boiler.

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State any four functions of BIOS

Answer :

The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) provides the processor with the information required to boot the system from a non-volatile storage unit (HDD, FDD, CD or other). It provides the system ... lifetime. To check for updated BIOS, users can check the website of the specific hardware vendor.

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List  functions of MEDA. 

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Functions of MEDA:  1. To decide long term energy conservation policy's for Maharashtra state. 2. To coordinate with central government organization i.e NPC, MNRE etc for energy conservation policy ... our society. 6. To decide penalty, incentive, subsidy for energy conservation at state level. 

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State functions of the following pins of IC555.

Answer :

1) Control: - The dc Voltage at this pin is 2/3 Vcc. An external voltage applied to this changes threshold as well as trigger voltage to obtain pulse width modulated output.  2) Trigger: - The ... greater than 2/3 Vcc . When the voltage goes below 1/3 Vcc, output of the timer goes high.

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Adding Sinusoidal Functions

Answer :

Adding Sinusoidal Functions

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State the functions of National Productivity Councils

Answer :

Functions of National Productivity Councils: i. Consultancy to organizations on productivity improvement ii. Training to personnel at different levels iii. Dissemination of Productivity information ... . iv. Productivity Research and Database v. Productivity Publications vi. Productivity Awards

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Description :

Which of the following gates can be used to realize all possible combinational logic functions?  (i) OR gate (ii) NOR gate (iii) Exclusive OR gate (iv) NAND gate (v) AND gate  (A) (iii), (iv) and (v)  (B) (i), (iii) and (iv)  (C) (ii) and (iv)  (D) (i) and (v)

Answer :

Which of the following gates can be used to realize all possible combinational logic functions?  (i) OR gate (ii) NOR gate (iii) Exclusive OR gate (iv) NAND gate (v) AND gate  (A) (iii), (iv) and (v)  (B) (i), (iii) and (iv)  (C) (ii) and (iv)  (D) (i) and (v)

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Description :

Describe the difference between an open circuit and a short circuit.

Answer :

Open circuit means the wire is cut meaning power will not flow and close circuit means wire is not cut and hence power will flow.Short circuit is the same as close circuit

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Draw and describe working of electronic energy meter.

Answer :

working of electronic energy meter:- 1. CT reduces current to reasonable value for current scaling network. 2. Voltage & current scaling networks reduce proportionally the voltage & ... The ADC converts the square wave frequency analog output to display the energy in watthour. 

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Describe with neat sketch working of hysteresis motor.

Answer :

Working: When stator is energized with single phase ac supply, rotating magnetic field is produced because of starting (auxiliary) and main windings, which remain in circuit permanently. The ... the principle of magnetic locking this motor either rotates at synchronous speed or not at all.

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Describe control of a single lamp from three places. Draw the relevant circuit diagram. 

Answer :

Single lamp control from three places-  It consists of two way switches & intermediate switch, the circuit diagram is as shown in figure. We require two 2-way switches and one intermediate switch and a lamp ... position of any one switch is changed, then the lamp will be turned off.

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Describe the working principle of Thyristor operated dimmer with the help of circuit diagram.

Answer :

Thyristor operated dimmer: A popular thyristor operated dimmer circuit employ TRIAC-DIAC phase control for low AC power control. During each half-cycle, the capacitor charges through (R1+VR1). When the ... time constant {C (R1+VR1)}. Thus by reducing VR1 the lamp brightness can be increased.

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With the help of N-channel JFET describe the effect of input voltage VGS on output current ID.

Answer :

Working of N channel FET: * When a voltage is applied between the drain and source with a DC supply (VDD), the electrons flows from source to drain through narrow channel ... where the channel gets completely blocked and the drain current becomes zero is called pinch- off voltage. 

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Describe strain gauge with labelled diagram.

Answer :

A Strain gauge is a sensor whose resistance varies with applied force. It converts force, pressure, tension, weight, etc., into a change in electrical resistance which can then be measured. When external ... to the applied strain. So, the voltmeter can be calibrated in terms of strain or force. 

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Describe the concept of virtual ground with reference to op-Amp.

Answer :

Virtual ground concept:-In circuit point A is virtual ground. Figure shows inverting amplifier using op-amp. In this circuit non-inverting terminal is connected to the actual ground. Due to ... zero potential without actually grounding is known as virtual ground concept. Circuit diagram: 

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Briefly describe the electric field of a static charge.

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Describe operation of N-channel JFET

Answer :

Operation of N-channel JFET  1) When VGS = 0 volt: When a voltage is applied between the drain and source with a DC supply voltage VDD with VGS = 0 V, the electrons flow from source ... to zero. The gate to source voltage at which current reduces to zero is called as pinch-off voltage.

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Describe triggering circuit for TRIAC using DIAC.

Answer :

Triggering circuit for TRIAC using DIAC: DIAC stands for diode alternating current. It's a two terminal four layer bidirectional device. It conducts in both directions. DIAC is used for triggering TRIAC. ... of DIAC to the gate terminal of TRIAC reduces the harmonics.

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Description :

Number of comparators required for an 8 bit flash ADC is: (1) 8 (2) 16 (3) 255 (4) 256

Answer :

Number of comparators required for an 8 bit flash ADC is: 255

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Description :

Answer :

Flash ADC is the fastest analogue to digital converter (ADC). But it have low resolution and it required lots of comparators which makes it expensive .

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1. During whose pleasure does teh Attorney General of India hold office? 2. By which bank are the central banking functions in India performed? 3. When did Sachin Tendulkar make his Test dubut? 4. Which covers the highest percentage of forest area In the world? 5. By which temple is an example of the Nagara style of ... the father of Man' ? 19. Which country is situated geographically in America but politically a part of Europe? 20. By whom was the coin rupia first issued?

Answer :

Answer : 1. President 2. Reserve Bank of India 3. 1989 4. Temperate Coniferous forests 5. Brihadeshwara Temple, Thanjavur 6. Bromine 7. Ronal ross 8. 21 years 9. Eucalyptus 10. Cholas 11. Le ... Humayun 16. Robert Koch 17. Lord Pethick Lawrence 18. William Wordsworth 19. Green Land 20. Sher Shah

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Answer :

Linux Kernel Architecture

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Answer :

EPROM EEPROM Flash EPROM Normalize cell size is 1. Normalize cell size is about 1 ... and floating gate, which is insulated by a dielectric material. NAND flash memory and NOR flash memory are the two types of flash memory.

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What are patents ? Briefly describe the various requirements and the process of award of a patent. Discuss the pros and cons of patenting life forms. What is the status of India in this context ? Also write your views on effects of patenting on commercialization of biotechnological products, with justification.

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Description :

Suggest various units and their sizes for primary health centre for the structure constructed in a village. 

Answer :

Units required for Primary health centre: a) Entrance or reception - 2.5 m wide b) Doctor's Room - 3 m x 3.6 m c) Examination Room - 3 m x 4 m d) Operation Theatre - 4 m x 5.5 m e) ... k) Parking - Scooter/ Motorcycle - 3 sq.m./ vehicle, Cycle- 1.2 sq.m./ cycle l) Sanitary block 

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Description :

Describe the functions of mixer and local oscillator in radio receiver

Answer :

Frequency Mixer:- The function of frequency mixer is to heterodyne signal frequency fs and local oscillator frequency fo. At the output, it produces the difference frequency known as ... local oscillator frequency fo is then mixed with incoming frequency to give intermediate frequency. 

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