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Linux Kernel Architecture


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Description : Linux Kernel Architecture

Answer : Linux Kernel Architecture: The kernel is a layer between Linux OS and hardware. When Linux is running in main memory it is divided into two parts one is user space and second is kernel space. 1.User Space 2.Kernel Space

Description : what are the significance of kernel in RTOS ?

Answer : In every RTOS there is the kernel. The kernel is the core supervisory software. The kernel provides minimal logic. Scheduling is also provided by the kernel. The resource- ... device managment service.RTOS kernel has interrupt management service.RTOS kernel has memory management service.

Description : List and explain the various functions supported by Linux/RTLinux.

Answer : Various functions of RTLinux is as follows: Interrupt handling functions

Description :

Answer : Various features of Linux that are used in embedded systems are as follows : Linux is multiuser operating system. Linux is open source and free. Linux can be ... Linux supports handling of errors. Real-time Linux supports the group scheduling functions.

Description : What are the advantages of using Linux?

Answer : Advantages of Linux are as follows :Linux is open source and free.Linux Is multiuser and multitasking operating system.Linux is the stable operating system.Linux is reliable.Linux can be modify according to requirements.Linux is the secure operating system.

Description : What is meant by embedded Linux?

Answer : Linux is the operating system if we use this operating system in embedded system devices then it is known as embedded Linux. Linux is open source and free.

Description : Describe the various blocks and their functions in pipelined ADC architecture.

Description : List and describe three general approaches to improve designer productivity.

Answer : Automation: The task of using a computer program to replace manual design effort. The program replaces manual design effort. Synthesis. Reuse: The ... correctness/completeness of each design step. Hardware/software co-simulation.

Description : Describe different RT level computational and sequential components used to design single function processors.

Answer : RT-level combinational components:- To reduce the complexity in digital logic, combinational components are used, which are more powerful than logic gates.  Such combinational ... during a clock edge. An asynchronous inputs value effects the circuit independent of the clock.

Description :

Answer : Common computation models: Sequential program model Statements, rules for composing statements, semantics for executing them Communicating process model ... Object-oriented model For breaking complex software into simpler, well-defined pieces

Description : Let the time taken to switch between user mode and kernel mode of execution be T1 while time taken to switch between two user processes be T2. Which of the following is correct? (A) T1 < T2 (B) T1 > T2 (C) T1 = T2 (D) Nothing can be said about the relation between T1 and T2.

Answer : (A) T1 < T2

Description : WOW32 is a: (A) Win 32 API library for creating processes and threads. (B) Special kind of file system to the NT name space. (C) Kernel - mode objects accessible through Win32 API (D) Special execution environment used to run 16 bit Windows applications on 32 - bit machines.

Answer : (D) Special execution environment used to run 16 bit Windows applications on 32 - bit machines.

Description : The Unix Kernel maintains two key data structures related to processes, the process table and the user structure. Which of following information is not the part of user structure? (A) File descriptor table (B) System call state (C) Scheduling parameters (D) Kernel stack

Answer : (C) Scheduling parameters

Description : Which of the following is not a basic primitive of the Graphics Kernel System(GKS) ? (A) POLYLINE (B) POLYDRAW (C) FILL AREA (D) POLYMARKER

Answer : (B) POLYDRAW

Description : One of the disadvantages of user level threads compared to Kernel level threads is (1) If a user level thread of a process executes a system call, all threads in that process are blocked. (2) Scheduling is application dependent. (3) Thread switching doesn’t require kernel mode privileges. (4) The library procedures invoked for thread management in user level threads are local procedures.

Answer : If a user level thread of a process executes a system call, all threads in that process are blocked.

Description : In IT terminology failure in the kernel is called as (1) Crash (2) C r a s h dump (3) Dump (4) Kernel error

Answer :  Crash

Description : A type of internet account, in which the computer is not connected directly to the net. (1) Shell Account (2) Kernel Account (3) Server Account (4) TCP/IP Account

Answer :  TCP/IP Account

Description : Which of the following is not open source software? (A) Apache HTTP server (B) Internet explorer (C) Fedora Linux (D) Open office

Answer : (B) Internet explorer

Description : Which one of the following is not an Operating System ? (A) IBM AIX (B) Linux (C) Sun Solaris (D) Firefox

Answer : (D) Firefox

Description : Which one of the following is different from other members? (A) Google (B) Windows (C) Linux (D) Mac

Answer : (A) Google 

Description : Linux operating system uses (A) Affinity Scheduling (B) Fair Preemptive Scheduling (C) Hand Shaking (D) Highest Penalty Ratio Next

Answer : (B) Fair Preemptive Scheduling Explanation: Linux uses two process-scheduling algorithms: 1. A time-sharing algorithm for fair preemptive scheduling between multiple processes 2. A real-time algorithm for tasks where absolute priorities are more important than fairness

Description : The output generated by the LINUX command : $ seq 1 2 10 will be (A) 1 2 10 (B) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (C) 1 3 5 7 9 (D) 1 5 10

Answer : (C) 1 3 5 7 9

Description : Find the “odd one out”. (1) Linux (2) Windows 98 (3) C++ (4) Windows 7

Answer : C++

Description : Find the odd one out A) MS -Excel B) Windows XP C) Linux D) DOS

Answer : Find the odd one out   MS -Excel 

Description : In relation to embedded Linux how TCP/IP networking is done? Explain network configuration.

Description : Harvard architecture allows: A. Separate program and data memory B. Pipe-ling C. Complex architecture D. All of the mentioned

Answer : D. All of the mentioned 

Description : Which architecture provides separate buses for program and data memory? A. Harvard architecture B. Von Neumann architecture C. None of the mentioned D. All of the mentioned

Answer : A. Harvard architecture 

Description : Which architecture involves both the volatile and the non-volatile memory? A. Harvard architecture B. Von Neumann architecture C. None of the mentioned D. All of the mentioned

Answer : A. Harvard architecture 

Description : 1. Which combination of foods providing protein quality nearest to that of meat? 2. What does the Constitution name our country? 3. A hydrogen atom is paramagnetic. What is a hydrogen molecule? 4. Which type of rainfall is often accompanied with lightning and thunder? 5. During which reign did the Vimana style in temple architecture come into vogue? 6. What is the period of revolution of a geostationary satellite? 7. United nations adopted a charter of Economic Rights in which year? 8. Which disease is inheritable? 9. What do the contact of two air masses differing sharply in humidity originate? 10. The most important feature in the economic measures pursued by Alauddin Khalji what was that? 11. On which day is the budget, in normal circumstances, presented to the Parliament? 12. Which of the toxic heavy metals is found in modern tannery industries? 13. When was the Rolling plan designed? 14. Compared to other slopes in the northern hemisphere which is the warmest? 15. Who introduced the famous Persian festival of Nauroj in India? 16. Which organization was established as the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944? 17. Why is tetracycline is used? 18. Which is the largest Committee of the Parliament? 19. On moving from a pole to the equator what we find in population of plants and animals? 20. Chand Bibi, who ceded Berar to Akbar, was the ruler of which kingdom?

Answer : Answer : 1. Sprouted gram and groundnuts 2. India, that is Bharat 3. Diamagnetic 4. Convectional 5. Cholas 6. 24 hours 7. 1974 8. Colour blindness 9. Temperate cyclones 10. Market control 11. The ... 15. Balban 16. IMF 17. As anti-plague drug 18. The Estimates Committee 19. Increase 20. Ahmednagar

Description : 1. Which is considered a hot-spot of biodiversity in India? 2. What does the special status of Jammu and Kashmir imply? 3. Why are Metals good conductor of heat than insulator? 4. Where is pearl fishing well developed in India? 5. By whom was the rare work on architecture, Samarangana Sutradhara written? 6. Who was the first Indian to win the World Amateur Billiards title? 7. Who was the first asian to have received the Nobel Prize? 8. Which of a species describes the tropic function it fills in its environment? 9. What is the most important item of export among marine products from India? 10. Who was the first Sultan of Delhi to introduce the practice of 'Sijda' ? 11. To whom is the Chief Minister of a State responsible? 12. A mixture of camphor and benzoic acid can be easily separated by which method? 13. Which is the oldest ‘stock exchange of India? 14. What is the approximate equatorial circumference of the earth? 15. Which Sultan of Delhi imposed Jazfya on the Brahmins also ? 16. Who got the ‘Bharat Ratna’ award, before becoming the President of India? 17. Which vitamin is generally excreted by humans in urine? 18. What is the source of maximum income to Panchayati Raj? 19. Which is present in the largest amount in terms of percent by mass in the earth’s crust? 20. The Mansabdari system introduced by Akbar from which system was it borrowed from?

Answer : Answer : 1 1. Western Ghats 2. A separate Constitution 3. They contain free electrons 4. Off the coast at Rameshwaram 5. Bhoja Paramara 6. Wilson Jones 7. R.N. Tagore 8. Niche 9. Shrimp 10. ... km 15. Firoz Tughlaq 16. Dr. Zakir Hussain 17. Vitamin C 18. Government grants 19. Oxygen 20. Mongolia

Description : The software ................. of a program or a computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships among them. (A) Design (B) Architecture (C) Process (D) Requirement

Answer : (B) Architecture

Description : Which of the following statement(s) is/are true with respect to software architecture? S1: Coupling is a measure of how well the things grouped together in a module belong together logically. S2: Cohesion is a measure of the degree of interaction between software modules. S3: If coupling is low and cohesion is high then it is easier to change one module without affecting others. (1) Only S1 and S2 (2) Only S3 (3) All of S1, S2 and S3 (4) Only S1

Answer : Answer: 2

Description : Differentiate between (i) Harvard and Von-neuman architecture (ii) Microprocessor and Microcontroller

Answer : i) Harvard Architecture and Von-neuman architecture ii) Microprocessor and Microcontroller

Description : Write the syntax of entity and architecture used in VHDL and explain it.

Answer : Entity declaration: It defines the names. Input output signals and modes of a hardware module. Also it provides the external interface of an entity. It is a black box view. Syntax ... _name of entity_ name  Architecture_ declaration_ name;  begin  Statement;  end architecture_ name;

Description : What do you mean by Computer Architecture and Organization?

Description : Draw the circuit diagram and describe the working principle of full wave bridge rectifier. Draw its waveforms. 

Answer : During the first half cycle : During the first half cycle of the input voltage, the upper end of the transformer secondary winding is positive with respect to the lower end. Thus during the first ... , terminal D, diode D4, and terminal A back to transformer and output will positive half cycle.

Description : Describe the operation of inductor with sinusoidal AC voltage as input. Draw waveform for voltage across and current through the inductor. Draw its phasor representation.

Answer : An alternating voltage is applied to a purely inductive coil, a back e.m.f. is produced due to self-inductance of the coil. The back e.m.f. at every step, opposes the rise of fall of current through the coil ... drop, the applied voltage has to overcome this self induced e.m.f. only.

Description : Draw and describe power triangle. State its significance.

Answer :  Power Triangle:   OR   Power Triangle is a right angled triangle whose sides represent the active, reactive and apparent power. It is obtained by multiplying the circuit current I ... loss due to different load. This is very important for designing the energy efficient electrical system. 

Description : Draw block diagram of digital frequency meter in time mode and describe its operation.

Answer : OR Operation: The input signal is amplified and converted to a square wave by a Schmitt Trigger circuit. In this diagram the square wave is differentiated and clipped to ... thereby closing it. The decimal counter and display unit output correspond to the number of input pulses. 

Description : Draw the basic block diagram of single trace CRO and describe the function of delay line.

Answer : Function of Delay line: This block is used to delay the signal for a period of time in the vertical section of CRT. The input signal is not applied directly to the vertical plates because the part ... when the delay time is not used. Therefore, the input signal is delayed by a period of time. 

Description : Draw and describe horizontal deflection system in CRO 

Answer : Block Diagram: Explanation: Input from vertical amplifier is given to Horizontal system. Trigger circuit: a. A trigger circuit is used to convert the incoming signal into trigger ... : Horizontal amplifier amplifies the signal & passes the signal to horizontal plates of CRT. 

Description : Draw the circuit diagram of multi range AC voltmeter and describe its working

Answer : The above circuit looks like a multi range AC voltmeter. We know that, we will get AC voltmeter just by placing rectifier in series (cascade) with DC voltmeter. The above circuit was created ... any two points of an electric circuit, by connecting the switch, S to the desired voltage range.

Description : Draw a block diagram of CRDI system and describe its working.

Answer : Working of CRDI system: High pressure pump provides high pressure fuel to the common rail. The common rail stores the fuel and maintains a constant pressure in the common rail line (approximately 1500 bars.). ... rate can be modified by controlling the nozzle needle movement. OR

Description : Draw construction of PVC gang capacitor and describe it’s working.

Answer :  Diagram Working  In plastic core capacitor, poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) type of plastic film is used as dielectric between the fixed & movable vanes instead of air. This increases ... & results in great reduction of size of capacitor in comparison with the air core capacitor.

Description : Draw and describe working of positive clamper.

Answer : Diagram- Operation In the first negative half cycle after turning on the circuit, the diode acts as a closed switch and charges the capacitor to peak input voltage Vm with the polarities. In all the ... Vo as,  This shows that the clamper adds a positive DC shift. Waveform

Description : Draw and describe working of full wave rectifier using centre tapped transformer.

Answer : Full wave Rectifier with Center tapped transformer(FWR): In full wave rectification, the rectifier conducts in both the cycles as two diodes are connected. Circuit diagram: Operation: 1. In ... both half-cycles of input AC voltage. Therefore DC is obtained across the load RL.

Description : Draw and describe construction of LED .

Answer : Construction of LED Fig above shows the construction of LED. Here an N-type layer is grown on a substrate by a diffusion process. Then a thin P-type layer is grown on ... takes place. After passing through the P-region the light is emitted from the window provided at top.

Description : Draw and describe the VI characteristics of zener diode

Answer : A zener diode is operated only in the reverse-bias region. (generally written as VR) is increased, the reverse current (usually called zener current, IZ) remains negligibly small up to ... out of the breakdown region, when the applied reverse voltage is reduced below the breakdown voltage.  

Description : Draw and describe working of series biased clipper with input output waveforms. 

Answer : Biased series positive clipper: Clipping of the signal takes place as soon as the input signal goes positive. If we want to change/adjust the clipping level of AC voltage, then external biasing voltage must be ... voltage must be used. The figure given below shows a biased (series) clipper.    

Description : Draw and describe constructional diagram of electrolytic capacitor.

Answer : Electrolytic capacitor is a polarized capacitor. This type of capacitor consists of pasty, semiliquid electrolyte between aluminum foil electrodes or plates. An electrolytic capacitor is a type ... the ends closed with wax and then sealed into an aluminium container as shown in fig. 

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