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what are different three main IC Technologies? discuss the advantages of each of them.
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The three different IC technologies are 

1.Full custom VLSI

2.Semi-custom ASIC

3.Programmable Logic Devices (PLD)


The advantages of each of them are as follows :

1. Full custom VLSI

  • All layers of full custom IC is optimised and will, therefore, get excellent performance.
  • Full custom VLSI devices are optimised to perform fix function.
  • Design, testing, and fabrication take too much efforts.
  • The development costs of full custom VLSI is very high.
  • Full custom VLSI is a type of digital logic devices.
  • Full custom VLSI are hardwired.
  • All the logic cells and mask layers of full custom VLSI is customised.
  • Full custom IC is small in size.
  • Full custom IC consume low power.
  • Full custom IC have excellent performance.
  • Microprocessors and RAM used in computers are the examples of full custom VLSI.

2. Semi-custom ASIC

  • In semi-custom ASIC the lower level is fully or partially built.
  • The upper level is not built the upper level is finish by the designer. 
  • The performance of semi-custom ASIC is good.
  • The size of semi-custom ASIC is good.
  • The NRE cost of semi-custom cost of semi-custom ASIC is low then full custom IC.
  • Semi-custom ASIC uses two technology one is standard cell and second is Mask Programmable gate array (MPGA).
  • Programming of semi-custom ASIC is done at fabrication level.
  • Semi-custom ASIC is advantageous for highest performance in short time.
  • Semi-custom ASIC reduces the cost and design time.

3. Programmable Logic Devices (PLD)

  • All layers of Programmable Logic devices are built already.
  • The designer can directly purchase and IC.
  • Programmable Logic devices have low NRE cost.
  • Programmable Logic devices are available instantly.
  • In PLD there is not customised logic cell or mask layer.


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