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State the advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectric power plant.
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Advantages of Hydroelectric power plant:- 

1. There is no air pollution and other environmental problems. 2. The fuel (water) is available freely. 3. No fuel transportation cost so; there is no necessity of fuel handling equipment. 4. No treatment on fuel is required. 5. No fuel waste is produced (like ash) so, no waste disposal problem. 6. Fuel can be used again and again. ( Renewable energy sources) 7. Generating cost is less and reduces day by day. 8. Power plant can be put into service immediately. 9. It saves fossil fuels (coal diesel oil etc.) which are limited available which can be used for other purposes. 10. Less man power is required per MW so, running cost is less. 11. Layout is simple. Auxiliaries are considerably less than those in the case of a thermal power station. 12. Power generation can be controlled quickly & rapidly without any difficulty. (By simply controlling flow of water) 13. There are no standby losses. 14. Efficiency of plant is highest (above 97%) and does not change with age. 15. Operating & maintenance cost are very low. 16. The life of plant is longest. 17. In addition to generation of electric energy H.P.P. is also useful for supply of drinking water, supply of water for irrigation purpose and it control the flood also. 18. Since, hydroelectric stations are situated far away from populated areas so, the cost of the land is low. 19. The cost per kWh of a hydroelectric station is not considerably affected by the load factor, as in the case of a TPP NPP DPP. 20. It is very neat & clean plant.

Disadvantages of hydroelectric Power Stations:- 1. High capital cost due to construction of dam. 2. It takes long time for completion of power plant. 3. It requires large space (catchment) for storage of water. 4. As power plant are away from load center so the cost of transmission and losses in it are more. 5. Power generation depends on nature. 6. During long dry season it affects the capacity of power generation. 7. Firm power (Output) is totally depends on quantity of water available in reservoir.8. There is limitation to select the site of HPP because of their site selection criteria. 9. The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. 10. Due to construction of dam and creating large reservoir, this can force the relocation of large numbers of riverside cities, towns, villages & people.

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