Systematic errors: -
➢ Instrumental Error: These errors are caused due to the mechanical structure of measuring instrument.
a) Inherent shortcomings of instruments: Instrument may read too low or too high.
b) Improper use of instruments: Improper handling e.g. overloading, overheating, failure to adjust zero, use of high resistance leads.
c) Loading effect: cause distortion in original signal.
➢ Environmental Error: These are because of surrounding conditions such as temperature, pressure, humidity, dust, vibrations, or external magnetic fields or electrostatic fields.
➢ Observational Error: Parallax errors, incorrect multiplying factor.