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Describe systematic errors in measuring instruments. 
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Systematic errors: - 

➢ Instrumental Error: These errors are caused due to the mechanical structure of measuring instrument. 

a) Inherent shortcomings of instruments: Instrument may read too low or too high. 

b) Improper use of instruments: Improper handling e.g. overloading, overheating, failure to adjust zero, use of high resistance leads. 

c) Loading effect: cause distortion in original signal. 

➢ Environmental Error: These are because of surrounding conditions such as temperature, pressure, humidity, dust, vibrations, or external magnetic fields or electrostatic fields. 

➢ Observational Error: Parallax errors, incorrect multiplying factor. 

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